Health: Current Problems and Issues

What follows are snapshots of current – and some ongoing – health-related problems and issues across Canada identifying where, what, when and where possible, potential solutions.

Manitoba Government: First Nations infant deaths by sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) was 4.5 times higher than non-First Nations infants (Luo et al., 2010).

Mar. 13, 2020 – Release of Manitoba Advocate for Children and Youth (2020): Safe and sound: A special report on the unexpected sleep-related deaths of 145 Manitoba infants” According to population projections, Indigenous infants account for between 20-30% of live births in Manitoba during the study period (Jan, 2009 – Dec. 2018), but represent 57% of sleep-related infant deaths. That translates to 83 First Nations and Métis infants.

Policies articulated in the Indian Act have excluded Indigenous Peoples from participation in economic life for generations, leading to intergenerational poverty. In evidence of ongoing systemic racism, many Indigenous families have unequal access to health services, they lack suitable stable housing, and access to clean drinking water. The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Manitobans is widening (Katz et al. 2019). Of the 13 recommendations, 7 are directed towards First Nations and Métis governments and various federal and provincial ministries

https://manitobaadvocate.ca/wp- content/uploads/SafeSleep-Report.pdf

Federal, Provincial, Territory Governments: Lack of protection for Indigenous communities during a pandemic

Mar. 17, 2020 – Globe and Mail – Despite accounting for just under 5 per cent of the Canadian population, Indigenous people were 25 per cent of those admitted to ICUs during the first wave of H1N1. First Nations children were 21 per cent of the pediatric patients admitted to ICUs during both waves. This led to sad and tragic outcomes. Indigenous peoples represented 17.6 per cent of the reported deaths in the first wave and 8.9 per cent of reported deaths in the second. These figures likely reflect the lack of timely interventions and diagnoses that plague communities who depend on understaffed nursing stations for their health-care needs, as well as jurisdictional squabbling about roles and responsibilities.
John Borrows is Canada Research Chair in Indigenous Law at the University of Victoria Law School writing with Constance MacIntosh, Viscount Bennett Professor of Law at Schulich School of Law at Dalhousie University

Timmins Police Service, Timmins and District Hospital, Cochrane District Social Services Administration Board for discrimination against Indigenous patients

Feb. 5, 2020 – Timmins The Daily Press – On the second anniversary of the deaths of Joey Knapaysweet and Agnes Sutherland, the Ontario Human Rights Commission (OHRC) announced it has filed an application with the Human Rights Tribunal of Ontario (HRTO) alleging discrimination based on Indigenous ancestry by public service providers in Timmins, Ontario. The February 2018 deaths highlight the serious and sometimes tragic result of systemic discrimination against First Nations peoples in Northern Ontario. Both Joey Knapaysweet and Agnes Sutherland traveled to Timmins from Fort Albany First Nation, more than 400 km away, to access health services that were not available in their community. These circumstances left them particularly vulnerable to discrimination.

The OHRC acts in the public interest and is committed to ensuring that Indigenous peoples receive equal access to essential services consistent with their unique cultural and language needs, pursuant to the Ontario Human Rights Code and consistent with the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The OHRC is seeking a variety of public interest remedies, including requiring the respondents to:

  • Engage with Indigenous communities to understand their concerns and needs
  • Develop policies and provide training to ensure that their services are delivered in a culturally competent and safe manner, free of discrimination
  • Develop a human resources plan to promote and expand the hiring and promotion of Indigenous staff
  • Collect human rights-based data to identify problems and monitor solutions.

Health Canada, Government of Canada and Government of Alberta for failure to conduct a recommended comprehensive baseline health survey for First Nations in the Athabaska Delta

Dec. 17, 2019: Canada’s National Observer – Repeated failure by government authorities to conduct a comprehensive baseline health study as recommended by the Alberta Cancer Board (supported by the province’s governing health authority, Alberta Health Services) in 2009. In Fort Chipewyan a community of roughly 1,200 people, the study found, you would expect to see 39 cases of cancer. Instead, it found 51 cases, a difference of 30.7 per cent. The Athabaska River flows through Canada’s oil patch, giving rise to the theory that the oil-and-gas industry is responsible for the illnesses, having poisoned people for years by contaminating the environment. Government bodies and researchers have challenged that theory, leading to a call for a new more conclusive health study that could provide real answers.

Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation and Mikisew Cree First Nation pooled their resources to fund research. With some additional funding from Health Canada, a three-year, $1-million study was led by Stephane McLachlan, a professor at the University of Manitoba. His findings released in 2014 measured contaminants not only in water but also in beavers, ducks, fish, moose and muskrats — animals consumed as part of a traditional diet for those who continue to live off the land in the Peace-Athabasca Delta. He concluded that the animals contained high concentrations of pollutants such as carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals such as arsenic, mercury, cadmium and selenium. All of these are by-products of extracting and upgrading bitumen. Arsenic in particular has been linked to increased risk of biliary tract cancer.

Thunder Bay Regional Hospital for accepted practice of escorting Indigenous patients in need of medical care off of hospital property

Nov. 9, 2019: Toronto Star (Tanya Talaga) – A 19-year old First Nations man taken to the hospital by ambulance in obvious distress was escorted off the hospital property three hours later by security staff. Apparently, escorting Indigenous people who are seeking medical care off of hospital property is common practice. The would be patient ultimately committed suicide at a remote part of nearby Lakehead University. 

An internal review of the case by the hospital “concluded that appropriate actions were taken and that the right decisions were made by clinical staff based on the information provided to them and the patient’s presentation.” 
Tanya Talaga, Toronto Star

An investigation is currently underway by Ontario’s chief coroner, Dirk Huyer. He told me it will look for any “potential systemic issues that may have played a role in contributing to the death — policies, procedures, steps taken.” It will also examine whether this death is part of a pattern — and make any recommendations necessary to break that pattern.

Federal Government and Government of Ontario for ongoing failure to address access to health issues in Nishnawbe Aski Nation who have declared a Public Health Emergency across NAN territory

Oct. 23, 2019 – Nishnawbe Aski Nation (NAN) Resolution 16/04 Call for Declaration of Public Health Emergency. The Sioux Lookout Chiefs Committee on Health and the NAN Executive declared a Health and Public Health Emergency for First Nations across NAN territory.  This Declaration was not made lightly.  It was forced into existence by decades of perpetual crisis and persistent health care inequities at the NAN community level.  The Declaration is an assertion of the inherent Treaty rights of NAN members to equal opportunities for health, including access to appropriate, timely, high-quality health care, regardless of where they live, what they have or who they are.

In order to exercise our self-determination over health we need to bring back accountability, responsibility and resource allocation to our communities.  This involves changing the current colonial system to a new system that is based on the needs and priorities of our communities. This led to the execution of a trilateral commitment document: The Charter of Relationship Principles Governing Health System Transformation in NAN Territory (the Charter) which was mandated by NAN Resolution 17/21. The Charter was signed by the Parties (Grand Chief Alvin Fiddler, Minister Jane Philpott and Minister Eric Hoskins) on July 24, 2017.

In order to support the NAN Health Transformation process, the governments agreed to several actions, including:

  • Developing new approaches to improve the health and health access, including access at the community level.
  • Supporting the ability of First Nations communities and organizations to deliver their own services.
  • Proposing policy reform and exploring legislative changes to design a new health system for NAN territory, including sustainable funding models and decision-making structures.
  • Removing barriers caused by jurisdiction, funding, policy, culture and structures so that First Nations can deliver better plan, design and manage their own services

http://www.nan.on.ca/upload/documents/mushkikiw-wiichihiitiiwin-gathering-fina.pdf

Government of Nunavut for repeated failure to implement recommendations from the Canadian Paediatric Society to administer Palivizumab to all Inuit babies with respiratory issues

Oct. 20, 2019 : Globe and Mail – A group of doctors is urging officials in Nunavut to offer an effective but costly drug to all Inuit babies living in remote communities in the territory to protect them against a respiratory virus that disproportionately leads to their hospitalization. But Nunavut’s chief medical officer disagrees, saying there isn’t enough evidence to support such an approach. Palivizumab, the only available prophylactic treatment for RSV, is currently given to infants in Canada who are considered at high risk of complications, such as those born prematurely or who have underlying heart or lung conditions. But it is not routinely administered in Nunavut to healthy Inuit infants who are born at full term.

For most people, symptoms of RSV infection are indistinguishable from the common cold, although an estimated 1 to 3 per cent of infants in developing countries experience complications requiring hospitalization. Inuit babies in Canada, however, have an exceptionally high rate of RSV complications. Among some Inuit communities on Baffin Island, as many as half to two-thirds of babies are hospitalized with lower respiratory lung infections, mostly owing to RSV, according to Anna Banerji, an expert on Indigenous and refugee health and associate professor of pediatrics at the University of Toronto who helped start the petition. Although it is not entirely understood why, experts believe Inuit infants are disproportionately affected because of a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including food insecurity and a lack of adequate housing arising from a history of forced settlement.

Government of Manitoba for failure to improve health outcomes of First Nations people comparing data from 2015-17 vs 2002. Outcomes have actually gotten worse

Sept. 17, 2019: University of Manitoba Today – Joint study by the First Nations Health and Social Secretariat of Manitoba (FNHSSM) and the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP) in the Rady Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Manitoba, “The Health Status of and Access to Healthcare by Registered First Nation Peoples in Manitoba” compares health data collected in 2015-2017 with the results of a study the MCHP published in 2002.
“When we look at health status and health-care access, the inequities between First Nation people and all other Manitobans have gotten worse, according to many indicators,” said Leona Star, a Cree woman who is director of research at FNHSSM and co-led the study. For example, the First Nations life expectancy from birth in 2002 was 7 years lower than for the non-Indigenous population; in 2019 First Nations life expectancy from birth is now 11 years lower.

Other disturbing trends:

  • First Nation people’s rate of premature mortality (death before age 75): 2002 = 2x other Manitobans; 2019 =now 3x
  • Suicide rates for First Nations people = 5 x higher
  • Suicide attempts by First Nations people = 6x higher

As we have now documented that health inequities have increased since 2002, we propose the following specific actions: 

  1. Annual reporting on progress in addressing gaps in health and access to healthcare; 
  2. Development of strategic initiatives for equitable access to intervention and prevention measures (including addressing racism in the health system through mandatory cultural safety training for all staff, hiring of First Nation providers, new human resource policies for safe reporting of racist incidents); 
  3. Development of short- and long-term plans for the training and hiring of First Nation healthcare professionals; 
  4. Further development of research partnerships among MCHP, MHSAL, FNHSSM and Manitoba First Nations; 
  5. Setting First Nations on the path to borderless healthcare delivery by improving access to primary care healthcare that is designed and delivered through First Nations-led partnerships. 

http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference//FN_Report_web.pdf

Government of Ontario for failure to consult First Nations on Bill C-74 “The People’s Health Care Act, 2019

Feb. 28, 2019 – Bill-74 The People’s Health Care Act, 2019 does not contain recognition of First Nations jurisdiction in health area and specifically Articles 18 and 23, of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, have not been recognized, as there has been no consultation with First Nations in developing this legislation. (Chiefs of Ontario)

This legislation is set to create a new Agency called Ontario Health, which will be formed by dissolving the province’s 14 Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs) and merging their duties with those of six other health agencies, including Cancer Care Ontario and eHealth Ontario. First Nations must be involved in the conversation if we are to improve the overall health of First Nations in Ontario,” said Ontario Regional Chief RoseAnne Archibald. “We hope for a continued collaboration between First Nations and the Government of Ontario, so First Nations can provide a recommended approach that will lead to overall healthcare improvement and address the gap within First Nations healthcare. “

Government of Manitoba for failure to address the overwhelming need for access to Mental Health and Addiction services by Indigenous people

March 31, 2018 – Release of the Virgo Final Report: “Improving Access and Coordination of Mental Health and Addiction Services: A Provincial Strategy for all Manitobans” specifically emphasizes the discovery made during the system review that for almost every service encountered, the largest percentage of people being served were of Indigenous background. 

The report acknowledges the “history of colonization and historical trauma, and ongoing challenges with respect to social determinants of health. More importantly, we believe the overall system of services will not improve significantly in terms of access or coordination without a concerted and sustained effort to better meet the needs of the province’s Indigenous people.

Of the many issues brought forward unique to Indigenous people, two were particularly salient:

  • the need for more culturally informed services, including land-based programs, and support for those community members whose customary language is their own native language and who have trouble understanding words and concepts expressed in English. Last,
  • the “jurisdictional issue”— a fundamental challenge to be addressed going forward as it underlies significant issues related to access and coordination. This was one of the top priorities identified in the validation events.

Other specific issues identified previously with respect to the preceding Strategic Priorities, including,

  • the need for more local, and more flexible, services, including longer term treatment and pre-and post-treatment supports; 
  • the need for better integration of SUA and MH (substance use/addiction and mental health problems and illnesses) services; 
  • the need to fill specific gaps for youth and women; and 
  • a critical need for Withdrawal Management Services (WMS), transitional stabilization to support access to treatment, housing, transportation and crisis services, including post-crisis healing opportunities.

https://www.gov.mb.ca/health/mha/docs/mha_strategic_plan.pdf

Federal, Provincial, Territory Governments for failure to include Indigenous health within the Canadian Health Act.

Sept. 21, 2017: Healthy Debates “Indigenous health services often hampered by legislative confusion“. The federal and provincial governments negotiate health transfers based on the Canada Health Act, which specifies the conditions and criteria required of provincial health insurance programs. It doesn’t mention First Nations and Inuit peoples, Métis and non-status or off-reserve Indigenous peoples who are covered by the Indian Act.

This lack of clarity – and lack of policies for providing Indigenous health services – has historically been used by both the federal government and provinces to narrowly define their responsibilities toward Indigenous health. It’s created bureaucratic delays that leave Indigenous peoples waiting for care or medications readily available to non-Indigenous Canadians. And it’s created gaps in care between Indigenous and non-status and First Nations people living off-reserve.

“The move to a new fiscal relationship is significant,” Grand Chief Doug Kelly, chair of the First Nations Health Authority of BC says. Leaving Indigenous people out of health care discussions and program design hasn’t worked. Instead, he says, First Nations communities should be empowered to identify their priorities and develop a plan. Once costs are attached, communities would negotiate with the government for transfer payments. Groups like the First Nations Health Managers Association that Marion Crowe, Executive Director represents, have been working to prepare communities for the eventual transfer of responsibility, focusing on developing health human resource and health administrative capacity within First Nations communities.

Government of Manitoba and Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre for refusing to conduct a public inquiry into the death of an Indigenous man, Brian Sinclair, who died as a direct result of institutional racism and stereotyping

Sept. 15, 2017: CBC – Brian Sinclair was killed by racism on Sept. 21, 2008.  He was ignored for 34 hours, despite his need for urgent medical care, because medical professionals made negative assumptions about him based solely on his appearance. Anti-Indigenous bias is an endemic problem in Canadian health care:

  • The hospital authority denied that stereotyping had anything to do with Mr. Sinclair’s death.
  • The government of Manitoba refused to hold a public inquiry.
  • The inquest into Mr. Sinclair’s death sidelined issues of race and social marginalization.
  • Regulatory bodies have been slow to implement any changes, if at all, and
  • no one has been held accountable for professional misconduct or criminal neglect.

The findings of the Manitoba Ombudsman rely on the government’s health and justice departments “appraising their own progress.” http://s3.documentcloud.org/documents/5782400/Brian-Sinclair-Final-Report-En.pdf.

The Brian Sinclair Working group was formed to examine the role of racism in the death of Brian Sinclair and in the inquest that followed, in order to highlight ongoing structural and systemic anti-Indigenous racism in our contemporary health and legal systems. The Sinclair family and the Sinclair Working Group have called for a public inquiry to explore the underlying systemic racism in the delivery of Health services to Indigenous populations. The Working Group aims to release a final report in 2018. The interim report “Ignored to Death” was issued Sept. 2017

Sept, 2017 – “Out of Sight: A summary of the events leading up to Brian Sinclair’s death and the inquest that examined it and the Interim Recommendations of the Brian Sinclair Working Group”. Over-all recommendation:
We recommend that all stakeholders in the healthcare system (including the federal government, the provincial government, Regional Health Authorities, unions, professional organizations, and post-secondary institutions involved in the delivery of professional programs) adopt anti-racist policies and implementation strategies that include committing resources to providing anti-racist training and supporting independent investigations when complaints are filed.
http://ignoredtodeathmanitoba.ca/index.php/2017/09/15/out-of-sight-interim-report-of-the-sinclair-working-group/

Saskatoon Health Region for forcing Indigenous women to undergo tubal ligations while in labour

July 22, 2017 -Indigenous women were coerced into having a tubal ligation in Saskatoon hospitals while still in labour. A class action lawsuit was initiated on October 5, 2017 by two affected women in the Saskatoon Health Region. (CBC). Now about 60 women are part of the lawsuit. Authorities should very carefully read Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide adopted by the UN in 1948”, Romeo Saganash, an NDP MP said. “It says that “genocide” includes any acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, such as by “imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group.”
Dec. 10, 2018 – 72 organizations endorse the joint statement from Amnesty International Canada, the Native Women’s Association of Canada, and Action Canada for Sexual Health and Rights, calling for government action to #DefendConsent and end #ForcedSterilization of Indigenous women in Canada 

All the women interviewed felt that the health system had not served their needs, and they had felt powerless to do anything about it. Aboriginal women who have had such an experience that prevents them from accessing health care are aware that they are higher risk for negative consequences of health problems that are preventable or treatable if diagnosed early; they still cannot get past their distrust. In its submission to the UN committee, the law firm said there has been no effort at a comprehensive review to understand the scale of the problem or the conditions that make forced sterilizations possible. (Canadian Press)
Nov. 22, 2018 – Senator Murray Sinclair, former Chair of the TRC, says Canada needs a national investigation to find out how common coerced sterilizations are among Indigenous women and how they’ve been allowed to continue for so long.
http://nationtalk.ca/story/usw-joint-statement-calling-on-canada-to-end-sterilization-without-consent

Suicide Crisis

Federal Government and Government of Newfoundland and Labrador for failure to address social and education needs of Inuit community experiencing rapid growth of youth demographic

Why?
Oct. 29, 2019 – (CBC) Failure to approve funding requests over 20 years ago to build infrastructure and capacity in mental health counselling, social work, education etc. in a community whose average age is now  21, less that 50% of the average age of the broader population of 46.
Comment
Chief Eugene Hart declared a suicide crisis in the Labrador Innu community of Sheshatshiu after 10 people between ages 12 and 18 attempted suicide. Those attempts came on the heels of a 20-year-old woman’s drowning death the previous weekend, as well as the loss of 14 community members to natural causes over the last year. 

Ministry of Health and Health Canada for refusing to give emergency funding to Wapekeka First Nation to deal with an acute suicide crisis

Why?
Jan. 19, 2017 – Health Canada refused request for $380,000 from Wapekeka First Nation for emergency funds to address youth mental health issues on reserve after suicide pact was discovered. Three youth subsequently committed suicide. (CBC)
Comment
Health Canada indicated that the request for funds came at an “awkward” time. After 2 youth committed suicide in January 2017 a crisis team was flown in and four teens considered to be “at risk” were flown out for treatment. 26 other youth were identified as high risk for suicide (at what cost?). The 3rd youth member of the suicide pact committed suicide on June 13th, 2017. As of July 6, 2017, 18 youth in NAN territory have committed suicide.
Potential Solution

Federal, Provincial and Territory Governments for failing to address issues leading to national suicide crisis

Why?
Sept. 17, 2019 – Failure to address the multi-faceted issues impacting indigenous communities that have led to a suicide epidemic. The Canadian Council of Child and Youth Advocates (CCCYA) published “A National Paper on Youth Suicide” that calls on governments at the national, provincial and territorial levels to take concrete action to prevent youth suicide in Canada. 
Comment
The paper consolidates research by the CCCYA members that led to the identification of three broad findings related to youth suicide: 
·       the impact of traumatic childhood experiences,
·       the importance of service integration and 
·       continuity and how the voices of children and youth needs to be at the front of change. 
Potential Solution
National Paper on Youth Suicide: Calls to Action
1.      The Government of Canada develop and implement a fully resourced National Suicide Strategy with designated funding to the provinces and territories to create their own, or to support existing strategies where applicable. Whether at the federal, provincial or territorial level, young people must be included in all stages of development and implementation. 
2.      The Government of Canada develop and implement a cross-jurisdictional, standardized, data system and to compel provinces in the mandatory reporting of attempted and completed suicide. 
3.      The Government of Canada shall engage in meaningful partnerships with First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities experiencing elevated rates of suicidal behaviour of young people and develop interventions to eliminate these health disparities. This work should draw on the leadership and expertise of Indigenous youth and Elders whenever possible. 
mailto:http://www.cccya.ca/Images/english/pdf/CCCYA National Suicide Paper Final September 25 2019.pdf

Federal Government and Government of Manitoba for fiscal constraints on building addiction centres on First Nations

Why?
Oct. 30, 2018 – First Nations with addiction challenges only have access to two programs funded by the Government of Canada: the National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program and the National Youth Solvent Abuse Program. First Nations are currently denied the fiscal resources to construct addiction centres in their Nations due to a moratorium unilaterally placed on them
Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs
Comment
Substance abuse is more common in northern and remote communities as a result of a history of colonization, isolation, poverty, and language barriers. These First Nations are also more vulnerable to suicide, violence, and poor performance in schools. The numbers of First Nation citizens that are addicted to a variety of substances are staggering and demonstrate a very tragic situation both on and off reserve. The government needs to live up to its promise of working with First Nations on a ‘nation to nation’ basis.
Potential Solution
The lack of treatment facilities prevents community members from obtaining immediate services for crisis intervention, aftercare, and family support.”

Drinking Water Advisories

Federal Government and Government of Ontario for ongoing failure over 13 years to fix broken water system for Oneida First Nation

Why?
Nov. 26, 2019 – (Toronto Star/ Ryerson School of Journalism) The water distribution system on Oneida territory (with 2,200 residents) – operated by the community with regulatory oversight from Indigenous Services Canada – has failed to meet provincial standards dating back to 2006. Upstream, the nearby City of London dumps millions of litres of raw sewage into the Thames river that serves as the community’s water source. Yet, Oneida has received none of the federal government’s high-profile funding for safe, clean drinking water to Indigenous communities.
Comment
On the other side of the gravel road across Oneida is the Township of Southampton who draw their water from Lake Erie and is fed by a $176M upgrade last year. “I give my biggest beef here to all the municipalities around us that received money to bring up their water systems after Walkerton (tainted water scandal) to meet new renewed standards” said Oneida Chief Jessica Hill, who stopped drinking from her water tap in 2002.
“We are still sitting here with pre-Walkerton standards. What does that tell you?
The bottled water that the Oneida community drinks from comes from same source as the tap water of neighbours in the municipality across the street.

Federal Government for failure to confirm First Nations human rights to safe drinking water

Why?
Oct. 15, 2019 – (Water Canada) Ermineskin Cree Nation, Sucker Creek First Nation and two other Alberta First Nations have joined forces with Okanogan First Nation to coordinate legal actions to confirm First Nations’ – and other Canadians – human right to safe drinking water.
Comment
Ermineskin Cree Nation will also be presenting to the Assembly of First Nations Water Symposium in late November, following the federal election, to encourage other First Nations across Canada to push for recognition of the First Nations’ human right to safe drinking water, including new legal actions across the country.

Federal Government for ongoing failure to ensure the safety drinking water

Why?
August 15, 2019 – (Water Canada) Okanagan Indian Band (OKIB) filed a suit in Federal Court against the federal government over its failure to ensure the safety of drinking water. An expert assessment commissioned by the federal government in 2010 by firm Neegan Burnside produced a startling result. All of the drinking water systems were ranked an 8 out of 10 on a scale of potential risk to human health
Comment
After 9 years of determined and good faith efforts on the part of the OKIB, the federal government has made upgrades to only 1 of 7 systems. Okanagan felt no option was left, apart from legal action. We are stuck in limbo between federal policy that underfunds our system and provincial infrastructure resources we cannot access.
Potential Solution
The suit simply asks for confirmation that First Nations have the same access to safe drinking water as other Canadians. That would compel the federal government to ensure water infrastructure that meets safety standards – with a timeline.

Federal Government for failure to address ongoing issues with Attawapiskat’s drinking water leading to “state of emergency”

Why?
July 9, 2019 – (CBC) Attawapiskat declares a state of emergency over state of drinking water. Tap water shows potentially harmful levels of disinfection by-products. Pro-longed exposure to THMs and HAAs can cause skin irritation and could increase the risk of cancer, according to a consultant report prepared for the community. THMs and HAAs cannot be cleared through boiling water.
Comment
Attawapiskat has long struggled with THM and HAA levels due to the high level of naturally occurring organic material in the lake where the community draws its water. Attawapiskat Chief Ignace Gull said the issue goes back to the 1970s when Ottawa decided use the lake water, which was originally intended to only feed the school, homes for teachers and the nursing station, to supply the whole community. “It wasn’t meant for the community,” he said. “We didn’t have indoor plumbing at that time.” At the same time as Attawapiskat declared a state of emergency over its ongoing water problems, Catherine McKenna the Minister for the Environment boasted about the world leading quality of tap water in Ottawa. CBC.
Potential Solution
July 9, 2019 – The only lasting solution to the nagging water woes would be to change the community’s water source to the Attawapiskat River — a conclusion reached by studies in 2008 and 2011. A new water source is also part of a broader plan for a desperately needed expansion of the community, which is bursting at the seams and pushing its existing water and wastewater systems to a near breaking point. The cost of the expansion is estimated at about $300 million to $400 million over 20 years. CBC

City of Winnipeg, Province of Manitoba and the Federal government for taking 100 years to restore safe drinking water to Shoal lake

Why?
June, 2019 – Taking 100 years to re-connect Shoal Lake # 40 First Nation to mainland after construction of aqueduct in 1919 resulted in flooding that cut them off from the mainland and eventually from their own source of drinking water
Comment
Winnipeg gets its drinking water from Shoal Lake who have been under a boil water advisory for 22 years. All 3 levels of government are finally financing the construction of a $40M all season access road to Shoal Lake. In the meantime, 9 residents have died after falling through the ice in the winter (their only access to the mainland)
Potential Solution
Aug. 7, 2019 (Maclean’s) Aug. Shoal Lake 40 grabbed national attention when its members used a brassy campaign tactic, protesting outside Winnipeg’s Canadian Museum for Human Rights in 2014 to point out a glaring contradiction: the water flowing through the museum’s taps came from an isolated community without clean water and a road. Hundreds marched on the city’s streets, supported by dozens of churches and the popular Christian musician, Steve Bell. In 2016, the three jurisdictions agreed to cost-share the $30 million road.

Federal Government and Government of Nova Scotia for failure to fix ongoing water quality problems for Potlotek First Nation

Why?
Sept. 12, 2017 – (CBC) Potlotek First Nation in Cape Breton has been advised by Health Canada not to drink the water, bathe in it or even wash clothes in it. This is the latest issue in a 10 year plus fight to fix their water system
Comment
Concentrations of manganese and iron in the drinking water exceed the “esthetic objectives” set out in Canada’s guidelines for drinking water quality. More details from Health Canada are pending. The Atlantic Chiefs have been working with Dalhousie University to create an Atlantic First Nations Water Authority to govern, own, construct, operate and supply clean and sustainable water and wastewater services, created by and for indigenous communities
Potential Solution
Mar. 20, 2019 – Through the vision of the Atlantic Chiefs, the Atlantic Policy Congress of First Nations Chiefs Secretariat (APC), in partnership with Dalhousie University, Halifax Water, and Accelerator Inc. developed a preliminary business plan with governance structure recommendations for an Atlantic First Nations Water Authority to operate and maintain community water systems. A dedicated, independent regional water authority will improve public health and safety while also ensuring positive economic and environmental outcomes. Creation of this water authority is fundamental to the long-term cultural and economic growth of First Nations communities in the region.

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