Current Reality

High School Graduation RatesIndigenousNon-Indigenous
201668%86.3%
200658%

The above is based on

University/College Completion RateIndigenousNon-Indigenous
200611.4%28.5%
201617%35.2%

The above tables are based on Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC’s) Census Core Table 9A and INAC’s Census Core Table 6.05 as reported in the 2019 Indigenous Economic Progress Report

Between 1996 and 2016, a 2 per cent cap on annual increases was in place; between 2004-05 and 2013-14, provincial expenditures increased roughly 2 per cent a year after adjusting for inflation (during this same time period). This is in the context of declining enrolment.

Parliamentary Budget Officer (PBO) estimates that, nationally, the total funding shortfall for education programming in all band-operated schools in 2012-13 was between $300 million and $595 million. PBO estimates this shortfall grew to between $336 million and $665 million in 2016-17.

Federal Spending on Primary and Secondary Education on First Nations Reserves: Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer, Dec. 6, 2016

There are seven Education Calls to Action. To find out more about each Call to Action, including government and stakeholder responses and progress to date, visit the links below.

Education Calls to Action

Call to Action #6Repeal Section 43 of the Criminal Code
Call to Action #7Develop a joint strategy to eliminate education and employment gap
Call to Action #8Eliminate discrepancy in education funding for on-reserve vs off-reserve
Call to Action #9Prepare and publish annual education reports: Indigenous vs non-Indigenous
Call to Action #10Draft Indigenous Education legislation with Indigenous people engaged
Call to Action #11Provide funding to end backlog for First Nations post-secondary education
Call to Action #12Develop culturally appropriate early childhood education programs

Education for Reconciliation

There are four Education for Reconciliation Calls to Action. To find out more about each Call to Action, including government and stakeholder responses and progress to date, visit the links below.

Call to Action # 62Consultations on Indigenous education reform (curriculum content, funding)
Call to Action # 63Commitment to Indigenous education (K-12 curriculum, teacher training)
Call to Action # 64Denomination schools must teach course on Indigenous spirituality
Call to Action # 65Establish a National Research Program with multi-year funding

Current Problems and Issues in Education

Government of Alberta K-6 curriculum review ignores input from Métis people

March 31, 2021: The Métis Nation of Alberta (MNA) – is calling on the Government of Alberta to redraft its proposed K-6 curriculum, citing monumental concerns about the Euro-American colonial undertones. The MNA and its education and training affiliate Rupertsland Institute had very little input into the design of the curriculum despite several attempts to be included in the committees that were established.

In a letter to Alberta’s Minister of Education, MNA expressed deep concerns about the lack of transparency by the government of Alberta leading up to the release of the draft curriculum, which breaches the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) principles.

“This is another example of Alberta’s continued colonial practice over Métis peoples,” said Poitras. “The secretive approach under which this process was taken undermines the collective approach valued by our communities and it is unacceptable.” The MNA calls on the Minister of Education to re-draft the K-6 curriculum in collaboration with the Métis and other Indigenous groups in Alberta to address concerns about UNDRIP and allow the government to uphold recommendations from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to abolish colonialism in this province.

Oct. Curriculum advisers hand-picked by the Alberta government are recommending changes to the kindergarten-to-Grade 4 curriculum for fine arts and social studies that would eliminate all references to residential schools and “equity.” The advisers also recommend that seven- and eight-year-olds learn about feudalism, Chinese dynasties and Homer’s Odyssey in social studies classes. Curriculum experts familiar with the province’s process say the suggestions are a huge departure from where work was heading before the United Conservative Party was elected in 2019. Some education experts also say the proposed changes are regressive, racist, unsupported by research and would put Alberta’s school curriculum vastly out of step with most of North America. Dwayne Donald, an associate professor of education at the University of Alberta, is an expert in Indigenous teaching and curriculum. He said he felt hopeful about the potential for the previously proposed elementary curriculum to better include Indigenous perspectives. The suggested changes erase all of that work, he said.

Toxic culture at College of Education at University of Saskatchewan

Sept. 13, 2020: CBC – More than 200 people have signed an open letter demanding more respect for Indigenous knowledge and faculty in the University of Saskatchewan’s college of education. The letter follows revelations that at least nine Indigenous faculty, as well as other senior Indigenous staff, have recently departed the U of S in frustration. The letter, signed by current and former faculty, alumni and others, says the U of S college of education has historically been a leader in First Nations and Métis education, but that things are going backward. It refers to a “toxic culture” and “climate of fear” inside the college. It says Indigenous faculty who left, and many of those who remain, “did not feel supported and were fearful of speaking out against the present administration’s harmful attitude, policies and practices. “It says Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who spoke out were “targeted.” It also accused U of S administrators of “exploiting Indigenous education by using it for public recognition while scaling back on necessary resources.”

Concerns include the following:

  • Indigenous faculty, staff and students facing institutional and individual racial hostility
  • The limits placed on academic freedom
  • The impact on public education across the province, in particular for marginalized
  • students and community members that face a violent settler colonial context
  • The climate of fear and the silencing of people who shared concerns about the administration’s policies
  • Allies supportive of Indigenous faculty and staff have been targeted
  • The lack of ethical hiring practices and appointments through nepotism
  • Some key positions in Indigenous education have been dissolved
  • Exploiting Indigenous education by using it for public recognition while scaling back on necessary resources
Premier of Manitoba ignores contribution of Métis and First Nations in speech celebrating the 150th anniversary of Manitoba entering Canada

May 13 – Premier Pallister missed a golden opportunity to advance reconciliation by deliberately choosing to ignore the contribution of the Métis and First Nations peoples to the founding of Manitoba and its entry into the newly formed confederation of Canada. “Manitoba” derived from the Cree, Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages means “straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit”. (Canadian Encyclopedia). Louis Riel, the Métis leader, brought Manitoba into Canada in 1870.  He also led the northwest rebellion after Canada reneged on land promises it made in return for Manitoba’s entry info confederation.

Sound familiar.

What better forum to advance reconciliation than the 150th anniversary of Manitoba’s entry into Confederation to celebrate the leadership of Louis Riel, the Métis leader and the First Nations who made up the original inhabitants of Manitoba. In a province where Indigenous people make up 18% of the population according to the 2016 census, Pallister could have taken the opportunity to celebrate Indigenous people. What a missed opportunity to change perceptions, combat negative stereotypes and use the opportunity to move reconciliation forward. Instead he has chosen to further entrench negative bias and white privilege  in a province where according to the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs:

  • 74% of incarcerated men are Indigenous
  • 82% of youth in custody are Indigenous
  • over 90% of children in the child welfare system are Indigenous
  • the highest rates of child poverty at 75 per cent;
  • highest rate of police-involved deaths of Indigenous people at 60 per cent; and
  • one of the highest rates of murdered and missing Indigenous women and girls at more than 50 per cent

Prime Minister Trudeau on National Indigenous Day on June 21, 2020 acknowledged the contribution of Louis Riel and the Métis people in bringing the province of Manitoba into Confederation. He also took the opportunity to recommit his government to Reconciliation with First Nations, Métis and Inuit people.

Government of Ontario reneges on previous Liberal government’s commitment to make new Indigenous curriculum mandatory

May 21, 2019 – Release of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Studies Curriculum for Grades 9 – 12 by Ministry of Education. The 10 courses making up the revised curriculum are not mandatory as recommended by the TRC C2A # 62 but are “electives”.

On July 10, 2018, the newly elected Conservative government cancelled curriculum writing sessions initiated by the previous Liberal government designed to fulfil findings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. In the intervening year, the conservative government did not engage fully in consulting sessions with the indigenous stakeholders throughout the province contrary to their public statements. Nishnawbe-Aski Nation (NAN), a political territorial organization representing 49 First Nation communities within northern Ontario with the total population of membership (on and off reserve) estimated around 45,000 people was not consulted even once.

The previous Liberal government committed $15M over three years In response to Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s Calls to Action (#62 and #63), Ontario was investing the funds to support the development of resources and educator capacity to enhance the learning and teaching of the history of the residential schools system, the legacy of colonialism and the importance of treaties.

Calls to Action Status Updates

For an updated summary of the TRC Calls to Action, including all Education Calls to Action, click here (PDF 205 KB).