|High School Graduation Rates||Indigenous||Non-Indigenous|
The above is based on
|University/College Completion Rate||Indigenous||Non-Indigenous|
The above tables are based on Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC’s) Census Core Table 9A and INAC’s Census Core Table 6.05 as reported in the 2019 Indigenous Economic Progress Report
Between 1996 and 2016, a 2 per cent cap on annual increases was in place; between 2004-05 and 2013-14, provincial expenditures increased roughly 2 per cent a year after adjusting for inflation (during this same time period). This is in the context of declining enrolment.
Parliamentary Budget Officer (PBO) estimates that, nationally, the total funding shortfall for education programming in all band-operated schools in 2012-13 was between $300 million and $595 million. PBO estimates this shortfall grew to between $336 million and $665 million in 2016-17.
Federal Spending on Primary and Secondary Education on First Nations Reserves: Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer, Dec. 6, 2016
Budget 2021 invests $1,188 over 5 years with $181.8M ongoing across three priority areas: COVID-19 support, funding mechanisms and First Nations control over education and adult education
There are seven Education Calls to Action. To find out more about each Call to Action, including government and stakeholder responses and progress to date, visit the links below.
Education Calls to Action
|Call to Action #6||Repeal Section 43 of the Criminal Code|
|Call to Action #7||Develop a joint strategy to eliminate education and employment gap|
|Call to Action #8||Eliminate discrepancy in education funding for on-reserve vs off-reserve|
|Call to Action #9||Prepare and publish annual education reports: Indigenous vs non-Indigenous|
|Call to Action #10||Draft Indigenous Education legislation with Indigenous people engaged|
|Call to Action #11||Provide funding to end backlog for First Nations post-secondary education|
|Call to Action #12||Develop culturally appropriate early childhood education programs|
Education for Reconciliation
There are four Education for Reconciliation Calls to Action. To find out more about each Call to Action, including government and stakeholder responses and progress to date, visit the links below.
|Call to Action # 62||Consultations on Indigenous education reform (curriculum content, funding)|
|Call to Action # 63||Commitment to Indigenous education (K-12 curriculum, teacher training)|
|Call to Action # 64||Denomination schools must teach course on Indigenous spirituality|
|Call to Action # 65||Establish a National Research Program with multi-year funding|
Current Problems and Issues in Education
Statue of Egerton Ryerson, one of the primary architects of the Indian Residential School System, is toppled
June 2, 2021: Toronto Star –On May 11, Ryerson University’s First Nation-led research centre, Yellowhead Institute, issued an open letter announcing that their students and faculty would be swapping the school’s current name with “X” University in their email signatures and on social media. This is the firmest action taken by the department that has long denounced the university’s affiliation with Egerton Ryerson, whose beliefs are widely credited with the establishment of what became the residential school system.
Yellowhead Institute’s letter was in response to the “Standing Strong” task force, an independent group created by the university to complete expert historical research on Egerton Ryerson, while consulting with the community on how to address his statue on campus and other ties to his name…However, the Yellowhead Institute says it’s not enough…From an Indigenous student perspective, it cannot be reconciled.”
Meanwhile, the Ryerson school of journalism on Tuesday announced that their masthead publications would be changing their names after the 2020-21 year following a unanimous vote at the school council meeting on May 18.
June 6, 2021: Global News – A statue of Egerton Ryerson at Ryerson University, which was pulled down earlier Sunday evening by demonstrators, will not be “restored or replaced,” the university said Sunday. “The question of the statue was only one of many being considered by the Standing Strong (Mash Koh Wee Kah Pooh Win) Task Force, whose mandate includes consideration of the university’s name, responding to the legacy of Egerton R erson, and other elements of commemoration on campus,” read university president Mohame Lachemi’s statement.
Denial of access to education for Inuit youth who are prohibited from speaking Inuktuk and/or English
May 19, 2021: Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse – Considering the limited availability of residential care units for youth in Nunavik, Inuit youth must leave their communities to receive rehabilitation services. Two media articles reporting that Inuit youth could not speak their language in rehabilitation centers prompted the Commission to launch an investigation. The investigation initially concerned the right of Inuit youth to speak their language as well as the social services they receive while in the residential care of the CIUSSS-de-l’Ouest-de- l’Île-de-Montréal (CIUSSS-ODIM). However, the Commission soon realized that youth residing in these facilities were deprived of a formal education, as were youth residing in units under the governance of the Ungava Tulattavik Health Center in Dorval. For this reason, the scope of the investigation was expanded to include their right to education.
The investigation focused on the following areas:
- The cultural safety of Inuit youth from Nunavik placed under the residential care of the CIUSSS-ODIM
- The use of language
- Cultural and social isolation: obstacles to exercising cultural rights
- Rehabilitation services
- Cultural competence and clinical tools
- The right to rehabilitation services in their communities
- Access to education in English of Inuit youth placed in residential care
- Obstacles to access to education in English and lack of schooling
- The limits of the legal framework
- The cultural safety of Aboriginal students
The current investigation demonstrates a series of actions and omissions and institutional practices on the part of the different actors involved which led to the exclusion of Inuit children in residential care from the formal education system as well as a chronic violation of their right to education and to the full development of their human and cultural potential.
Alberta Human Rights Commission launches Human Rights Strategy to address systemic racism in Education
May 3, 2021 – The Alberta Human Rights Commission has released a “draft” Indigenous Human Rights Strategy to reduce systemic racism that Indigenous individuals and communities face in health, education, child welfare, housing, and justice (including policing and corrections) systems. Research, data, and information collected from consultations with key stakeholders indicate that systemic racism—in the health, education, child welfare, housing, and justice (including policing and corrections) systems—is a major issue facing Indigenous Peoples in Alberta.
he Alberta Human Rights Commission is launching an Indigenous Human Rights Strategy to guide the Commission’s practices and initiatives with the goal of reducing barriers that Indigenous individuals and communities face. It also aims to enhance the Commission’s interaction with Indigenous Albertans and communities.
The overarching goals of this strategy are:
- To help address and reduce systemic racism against Indigenous peoples in
- health, education, child welfare, housing, and justice (including policing and
- corrections) systems.
- To work with communities throughout Alberta to address the racism and
- discrimination Indigenous people encounter in their day-to-day lives.
- To build capacity and knowledge within and across the Commission to ensure we
- can serve Indigenous individuals and communities with respect. This must address the accessibility of our processes, relevance of our educational material, and our awareness of the lived experiences of Indigenous Peoples, in all their diversity.
- To strengthen and expand Commission’s relationships with Indigenous communities and organizations.
Government of Alberta K-6 curriculum review ignores input from Métis people
May 25, 2021: CBC – Some Alberta Indigenous leaders and an elder say the provincial government has used them or misrepresented their positions to gain endorsements for a new elementary school curriculum they do not support…Last month, the Sovereign Nations of Treaty Eight wrote to Premier Jason Kenney telling him to revisit the draft curriculum. The letter, co-signed by Laboucan, says the “glaring absence” of First Nations people from the writing process is “deeply offensive.”…After facing criticism last year for initially hiring a slate of all-male, mostly white curriculum advisers, the Alberta government asked five Indigenous elders to review the material and provide feedback.
One was Betty Letendre, a Métis residential school survivor who has worked for years with Edmonton schools to help teach students about Indigenous history and culture. She said the government on multiple occasions handed the group of mostly senior citizens hundreds of pages of documents and gave them one day, or a few days, to respond. They weren’t allowed to consult any other experts and the conditions were inadequate for providing meaningful feedback, she said. She feels the government took advantage of her position and identity.
Education Minister Adriana LaGrange has said in the legislature that all of Letendre’s feedback was included in the drafts. Letendre disputes this, and says mentions of Indigenous people and history appear as an afterthought.
has said in the legislature that all of Letendre’s feedback was included in the drafts. Letendre disputes this, and says mentions of Indigenous people and history appear as an afterthought.
March 31, 2021: The Métis Nation of Alberta (MNA) – is calling on the Government of Alberta to redraft its proposed K-6 curriculum, citing monumental concerns about the Euro-American colonial undertones. The MNA and its education and training affiliate Rupertsland Institute had very little input into the design of the curriculum despite several attempts to be included in the committees that were established.
In a letter to Alberta’s Minister of Education, MNA expressed deep concerns about the lack of transparency by the government of Alberta leading up to the release of the draft curriculum, which breaches the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) principles.
“This is another example of Alberta’s continued colonial practice over Métis peoples,” said Poitras. “The secretive approach under which this process was taken undermines the collective approach valued by our communities and it is unacceptable.” The MNA calls on the Minister of Education to re-draft the K-6 curriculum in collaboration with the Métis and other Indigenous groups in Alberta to address concerns about UNDRIP and allow the government to uphold recommendations from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to abolish colonialism in this province.
Oct. 21, 2021: CBC – Curriculum advisers hand-picked by the Alberta government are recommending changes to the kindergarten-to-Grade 4 curriculum for fine arts and social studies that would eliminate all references to residential schools and “equity.” The advisers also recommend that seven- and eight-year-olds learn about feudalism, Chinese dynasties and Homer’s Odyssey in social studies classes. Curriculum experts familiar with the province’s process say the suggestions are a huge departure from where work was heading before the United Conservative Party was elected in 2019. Some education experts also say the proposed changes are regressive, racist, unsupported by research and would put Alberta’s school curriculum vastly out of step with most of North America. Dwayne Donald, an associate professor of education at the University of Alberta, is an expert in Indigenous teaching and curriculum. He said he felt hopeful about the potential for the previously proposed elementary curriculum to better include Indigenous perspectives. The suggested changes erase all of that work, he said.
Toxic culture at College of Education at University of Saskatchewan
Sept. 13, 2020: CBC – More than 200 people have signed an open letter demanding more respect for Indigenous knowledge and faculty in the University of Saskatchewan’s college of education. The letter follows revelations that at least nine Indigenous faculty, as well as other senior Indigenous staff, have recently departed the U of S in frustration. The letter, signed by current and former faculty, alumni and others, says the U of S college of education has historically been a leader in First Nations and Métis education, but that things are going backward. It refers to a “toxic culture” and “climate of fear” inside the college. It says Indigenous faculty who left, and many of those who remain, “did not feel supported and were fearful of speaking out against the present administration’s harmful attitude, policies and practices. “It says Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who spoke out were “targeted.” It also accused U of S administrators of “exploiting Indigenous education by using it for public recognition while scaling back on necessary resources.”
Concerns include the following:
- Indigenous faculty, staff and students facing institutional and individual racial hostility
- The limits placed on academic freedom
- The impact on public education across the province, in particular for marginalized
- students and community members that face a violent settler colonial context
- The climate of fear and the silencing of people who shared concerns about the administration’s policies
- Allies supportive of Indigenous faculty and staff have been targeted
- The lack of ethical hiring practices and appointments through nepotism
- Some key positions in Indigenous education have been dissolved
- Exploiting Indigenous education by using it for public recognition while scaling back on necessary resources
Premier of Manitoba ignores contribution of Métis and First Nations in speech celebrating the 150th anniversary of Manitoba entering Canada
May 13 – Premier Pallister missed a golden opportunity to advance reconciliation by deliberately choosing to ignore the contribution of the Métis and First Nations peoples to the founding of Manitoba and its entry into the newly formed confederation of Canada. “Manitoba” derived from the Cree, Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages means “straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit”. (Canadian Encyclopedia). Louis Riel, the Métis leader, brought Manitoba into Canada in 1870. He also led the northwest rebellion after Canada reneged on land promises it made in return for Manitoba’s entry info confederation.
What better forum to advance reconciliation than the 150th anniversary of Manitoba’s entry into Confederation to celebrate the leadership of Louis Riel, the Métis leader and the First Nations who made up the original inhabitants of Manitoba. In a province where Indigenous people make up 18% of the population according to the 2016 census, Pallister could have taken the opportunity to celebrate Indigenous people. What a missed opportunity to change perceptions, combat negative stereotypes and use the opportunity to move reconciliation forward. Instead he has chosen to further entrench negative bias and white privilege in a province where according to the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs:
- 74% of incarcerated men are Indigenous
- 82% of youth in custody are Indigenous
- over 90% of children in the child welfare system are Indigenous
- the highest rates of child poverty at 75 per cent;
- highest rate of police-involved deaths of Indigenous people at 60 per cent; and
- one of the highest rates of murdered and missing Indigenous women and girls at more than 50 per cent
Prime Minister Trudeau on National Indigenous Day on June 21, 2020 acknowledged the contribution of Louis Riel and the Métis people in bringing the province of Manitoba into Confederation. He also took the opportunity to recommit his government to Reconciliation with First Nations, Métis and Inuit people.
Government of Ontario reneges on previous Liberal government’s commitment to make new Indigenous curriculum mandatory
May 21, 2019 – Release of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Studies Curriculum for Grades 9 – 12 by Ministry of Education. The 10 courses making up the revised curriculum are not mandatory as recommended by the TRC C2A # 62 but are “electives”.
On July 10, 2018, the newly elected Conservative government cancelled curriculum writing sessions initiated by the previous Liberal government designed to fulfil findings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. In the intervening year, the conservative government did not engage fully in consulting sessions with the indigenous stakeholders throughout the province contrary to their public statements. Nishnawbe-Aski Nation (NAN), a political territorial organization representing 49 First Nation communities within northern Ontario with the total population of membership (on and off reserve) estimated around 45,000 people was not consulted even once.
The previous Liberal government committed $15M over three years In response to Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s Calls to Action (#62 and #63), Ontario was investing the funds to support the development of resources and educator capacity to enhance the learning and teaching of the history of the residential schools system, the legacy of colonialism and the importance of treaties.
Calls to Action Status Updates
|For an updated summary of the TRC Calls to Action, including all Education Calls to Action, click here (PDF 205 KB).|