Current Reality

Sources for the above are from StatsCan,

Calls to Action

There are seven Health Calls to Action. To find out more about each Call to Action, including government responses and progress to date, visit the links below.

indigenouswatchdog.org/call-to-action-18/(opens in a new tab)

Call to Action #18Recognize and implement healthcare rights of Indigenous peoples
Call to Action #19Establish measurable goals to identify and close health gaps
Call to Action #20Address distinct needs of Métis, Inuit and off-reserve First Nations
Call to Action #21Provide ongoing funding for existing and new Aboriginal Healing Centres
Call to Action #22Recognize value of Indigenous healing practices and use in health system
Call to Action #23Increase the hiring and retention of Indigenous healthcare workers
Call to Action #24All students to take a course in Indigenous culture and awareness training

Three of the most alarming health-related problems within the Indigenous world are Suicide, Drinking Water Advisories and Food Insecurity in the north. All three are endemic throughout the country and have devastating effects. Given their profound impact on Indigenous people’s lives, the following sections on National Suicide Prevention, Drinking Water Advisories and Food Insecurity address these issues.

Suicide PreventionNational strategies and action plans
Drinking Water AdvisoriesWhat are they? What are the current issues?
Food InsecurityIssues and recommended Inuit solutions

Call to Action Status Updates

For an updated summary of the TRC Calls to Action, including all Health Calls to Action, click here (PDF 205 KB).

Current Problems and Issues in Indigenous Health

Recommendations for health care reform by developing culturally safe health policies and programs to remake an inherently racist system

Nov. 2, 2020: Policy Options – Canada’s history of colonization has laid the foundation for the implementation of racist health policy and the delivery of culturally unsafe health care, resulting in health disparities that are disproportionately experienced by Indigenous Peoples. Since the establishment of the Indian Act in 1867, Canada’s Constitution has continued to support and maintain discriminatory and inequitable practices and policies that negatively impact the health of Indigenous Peoples. The result is that Canada’s current health-care model is in and of itself a determinant of ill health for Indigenous Peoples. The authors recommend specific policy changes  to address these issues:

  • Lack of availability and accessibility to culturally safe health care for Indigenous people in Canada
  • Canada’s long history of implementing racist and sexist policies oppress Indigenous Peoples and place them in inequitable spaces. 
  • Indigenous women routinely experience systemic racism, institutional racism, a lack of cultural safety and sexism

Recommendations to make substantial changes to its health policies and legislations:

  • a collaborative approach that engages Indigenous Peoples and their communities in generating culturally safe and relevant health policies.
  • adequate distinctions-based programming and reporting mechanisms,
  • additional support of Indigenous-led research,
  • recruitment of Indigenous health-care personnel and
  • the integration of traditional healing practices in Canada’s health care model.
  • the creation of an ombudsman specific to Indigenous health should be established at the national, regional and local levels to ensure Indigenous Peoples feel safe to report inequities and experiences of mistreatment.

The TRC has advocated for cultural safety training and an increase in Indigenous health professionals in Canada’s health-care system, further supporting our health policy recommendations.Many of the health disparities experienced by Indigenous Peoples correlate to social, economic and political factors, suggesting that the foundation of Canada’s systems and thus its health care are inherently discriminatory.

https://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/november-2020/excising-racism-from-health-care-requires-indigenous-collaboration/

Southern Chiefs Organization in Manitoba seek increased funding and resources to contain COVID-19

Nov. 2, 2020 – Southern Chiefs Organization is making an urgent appeal to all levels of government to free up increased funding and resources to contain COVID-19 in First Nations where the test positivity rate among First Nations is 11% vs the provincial average of 8.6%. Manitoba has the worst case count per capita in Canada including daily outbreaks in hospitals, personal care homes, jails, and remote communities. “The provincial government had six months to prepare for this second wave of the virus,” added Grand Chief Daniels. “Instead of being adequately prepared, we are now bearing witness to the tragic loss of life and system collapse after years of so-called reorganization and red tape reduction.”

Today, the province announced that it will finally reactivate its incident command structure, to help “provide clear direction and ensure co-ordinated efforts are put in place to address the situation.” This is another example of how the Manitoba government is failing to keep First Nations and all Manitobans safe. The command structure was deactivated months ago, and it has taken the province until now to reactivate it, despite the alarming increases in cases which began many weeks ago.

As of October 31, 2020, 26 First Nation communities across Canada have reported two or more active cases with 17 of them located in Manitoba. There were 516 active cases in the province among First Nation people, 171 of them on reserve.

“If the province’s system is on the verge of collapse, imagine what that could mean for First Nation’s health care resources,” remarked Grand Chief Daniels. “Thanks to centuries of colonization, we have been dealing with an infrastructure backlog for generations. Add to that the challenges of a global pandemic and you have a recipe for disaster.”

Along with a call for improved transparency, action and accountability from the province, SCO is calling on the federal government to fast track the release of $200 million in recently announced funding to provide support to First Nations. That money will be immediately used to help build critical infrastructure including badly needed isolation units as well as upgrades for health, social, and educational facilities.

COVID-19 outbreak at Keeyask Dam construction site in Manitoba is pitting First Nations at risk

Nov. 2, 2020 – Manitoba Keewatinowi Okimakanak (MKO) Inc. is issuing this statement along with the four Cree Nations that are in a partnership with Manitoba Hydro in the construction and operation of the Keeyask Generating Station in Northern Manitoba. The four First Nations are: Tataskweyak Cree Nation, Fox Lake Cree Nation, War Lake First Nation, and York Factory Cree Nation. On October 22, 2020, the first case of COVID-19 was confirmed at the Keeyask site. Since then, an unspecified number of COVID-19 tests have been done on staff. Yesterday, First Nations leaders learned that additional positive cases have been confirmed and many more cases are presumed positives. Almost 10% of the workforce is now in isolation.

MKO and the four First Nations are demanding that the Province of Manitoba immediately declare the Keeyask construction site as code red under the province’s pandemic response system. The First Nations are asking the province to take aggressive action to bring the epidemic under control. MKO and the First Nations are extremely concerned about the lack of information Manitoba Hydro has provided on the spread of this virus. People from the four First Nations work at Keeyask and fear that people may have unknowingly brought COVID-19 back to their home communities before the first case of COVID-19 was detected on October 22. Manitoba Hydro cannot confirm on what date the virus may have appeared on site. The First Nations are working closely with public health officials to determine next steps.

Since the pandemic began in March 2020, MKO First Nations have expressed concerns about Manitoba Hydro’s plans for the Keeyask construction site. Manitoba Hydro has more than 750 employees at Keeyask who come and go from the site on rotating shifts—most employees have 21 days on and 7 days off. Manitoba Hydro has staff working at the site from various parts of Canada, including a current COVID-19 hotspot—Winnipeg.

“I commend the First Nations leaders who have worked diligently to try to protect our people. The provincial government must take aggressive action at the Keeyask construction site as there is an uncontrolled epidemic taking place. This site is not providing any hydro-electric power at this point, it is not an essential operation. MKO asserts that Manitoba Hydro and the Government of Manitoba need to put people before profits,” shared MKO Grand Chief Garrison Settee.

Canada Health Act fails the health needs of Inuit women and girls

Oct. 15, 2020: Pauktuutit Women of Canada – President Kudloo calls for additional funding to improve health determinants for Inuit women and girls and a focus on youth to increase Inuit health providers. She will also will highlight how the Canada Health Act is failing Inuit women and girls when she participates in a national meeting to address racism in the healthcare system on Oct. 16. Kudloo will also table recommendations to address racism experienced by Inuit women and children in the healthcare system. In addition, she will highlight the role systemic racism plays in health determinants for Inuit women which lead to poorer health outcomes, relative to other women in Canada.

“For Inuit women and girls, healthcare services fail most of the five basic principles of the Canada Health Act: accessibility, comprehensiveness, universality, portability, and public administration,” said Kudloo. “This is important because under the federal legislation, provincial and territorial health insurance programs must conform to the conditions of the legislation to receive federal transfer payments, under the Canada Health Transfer.” Systemic racism is also a key factor in many of the well‐known determinants of health, including employment, education, justice and income. Racism negatively impacts Inuit students’ success in graduating high school. It also limits their goals for post‐secondary education, including becoming a health professional. In addition, racism contributes to a lack of employment opportunities and the marginalization of Inuit in the workplace, including in well‐paying jobs in the healthcare system.

Recommendations

  • Increased funding to ensure the principles of the Canada Health Act ‐‐ including accessibility, comprehensiveness and universality ‐‐ are upheld for Inuit women and girls wherever they live, and that there are sufficient and sustainable health resources in each community.
  • Ensuring anti‐racism and cultural safety in education so Inuit children and youth receive STEM outreach programs; high school students receive counselling about the path to becoming a health professional; safe and respectful post‐secondary classrooms; as well as clinical settings that are free of racism and discrimination.
  • Training, recruiting, retaining, and mentoring Inuit staff and healthcare providers at all levels of the health system; as well as creating working and learning environments where Inuit knowledge, leadership and enterprise are valued.
  • Culturally aware and appropriate training to ensure all students training to work in healthcare, as well as present‐day healthcare staff, receive cultural awareness training regarding Inuit history and culture. Students and healthcare workers should also receive gender‐based violence training and those working in Inuit communities should receive Inuktut language training.
  • Inuit‐informed delivery of healthcare so that Elders, community leaders, women and youth are involved in the design and delivery of healthcare programs and services for their people and communities.
Death of Joyce Echaquan provides clear evidence of systemic racism in Quebec health care system

Sept. 30, 2020: Montreal Gazette – “In her last moments, while tied to a hospital bed, Joyce Echaquan, a 37 year-old Atikamekw woman, pleaded for someone to help her. Instead, a video she recorded shows she received disparaging and condescending remarks — at a time when Quebec continues to grapple with the larger question of systemic racism.” The Quebec coroner’s office is investigating the death that Premier François Legault insists is not reflective of systemic racism within the Quebec Health system despite that conclusion being found by the Viens Commission from one year ago.

“One professor told the commission the situation is so dire many Indigenous people will avoid going to the hospital over fears of being discriminated against. For those who have to go, they mentally prepare themselves first for the treatment they’ll be subjected to…Echaquan had grown so wary of hospital staff that she would often record Facebook live videos from her bed, her cousin said”.

Quebec’s Human Rights Commission condemned the “systemic discrimination suffered by Indigenous Peoples, particularly in the health sector.” Echaquan’s death, president Philippe-André Tessier said in a statement, serves as a “tragic reminder of this reality and of the need for concerted and sustained action to address it.” The Grand Chief of the Atikamekw Nation Council, Constant Awashish, called on the government to act swiftly and implement the recommendations put forward by the Viens commission. 

Oct. 2, 2020 – Quebec government announced the launch of a public inquiry under the coroner’s office.

Nov. 6, 2020 – The Quebec government will invest $15 million to implement targeted actions to enhance cultural safety for members of First Nations and Inuit in the health and social services sector. This announcement follows several calls to action by the Public Inquiry Commission on relations between Indigenous Peoples and certain public services in Québec. 

AFN recommendations to eliminate systemic racism in Indigenous health care

Oct. 16, 2020 – Emergency meeting on racism in Canada’s healthcare system. AFN recommendations to all levels of government:

  • Work directly with First Nations to ensure that Indigenous Peoples feel safe accessing health care services.
  • Quebec needs to work with First Nations to fully implement the Viens Commission Report’s recommendations.
  • Canada must conduct an immediate review of the Canada Health Transfers and the Canada Health Act, to ensure quality health care is being provided to Indigenous Peoples.
  • The federal, provincial, and territorial governments must listen to Indigenous Peoples on the need for a healthcare Ombudsperson.
  • The Provinces and Territories must work with educational institutions to ensure a more expansive curriculum for all health care providers
Indigenous coalition wants BC Government to release proximate COVID-19 information

Sept. 15, 2020: NationTalk – A coalition of First Nations is escalating its efforts to receive potentially life-saving COVID-19 information from the BC Ministry of Health, by applying to the Information and Privacy Commissioner for an order to disclose proximate case information about the location (not personal identity) of confirmed and presumptive COVID-19 cases near their communities. The application, which was filed by the Heiltsuk Nation, Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council and Tsilhqot’in National Government, is supported by several other First Nations, civil society groups, and doctors. A public campaign (https://keepsafecampaign.com) has been launched with LeadNow, asking British Columbians to call on the government to release the information.

The nations have filed their application on the basis that the BC government’s refusal to share information violates Section 25 of the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act (FIPPA), which states that a Minister “must” disclose information about a risk of significant harm to an affected group of people. The nations also contend in their application that BC’s own Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Act (DRIPA) requires that government “must take all measures necessary” to ensure the laws of BC are consistent with the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous people (UNDRIP), which includes rights to self-determination, self-government and to develop and determine programs for maintaining the health and well-being of Indigenous people.

Manitoba Métis Federation sues province over COVID-19 data sharing agreement

Sept. 13, 2020: Manitoba Métis Federation (MMF) – MMF filed a complaint with the Manitoba Human Rights Commission against the Government of Manitoba, the Honourable Cameron Friesen – Minister of Health, Seniors and Active Living – and Dr. Brent Roussin, Manitoba’s Chief Provincial Public Health Officer. The complaint states that the Manitoba Métis Community has been subject to discrimination and systemic discrimination by the Manitoba Government as well as Manitoba’s lead health official throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

“Dr. Roussin said in the media months ago that the province was prepared to engage with the Manitoba Métis on a data sharing agreement. We sent letters intended to initiate the discussions necessary to reach an agreement with Manitoba, but never received a positive response.” The MMF notes that it was engaged with Manitoba in early April but was told by the province that self-identification was sufficient evidence of someone being Métis. Discussions with the province came to a halt after we requested that Métis Citizens be verified by the MMF”.

“Sharing incorrect data created by those who falsely identify as Métis comes with a number of problems. We want to ensure that our resources are being used in an effective way that benefits the Métis Nation and indeed all Manitobans.” The MMF sent several letters between the months of April and August requesting Manitoba engage in a data sharing agreement whereby the MMF can confirm the identity of those who self-identify as Métis, but never received a formal response.

“Because of the lack of a data sharing agreement, a Métis Nation Citizen could get sick and we have no way of being notified,” said MMF Minister of Health Frances Chartrand. “We have been forced to rely on word of mouth from the Manitoba Métis Community to tell us that a Métis Citizen has contracted COVID-19 and is in need of our support. Any data analyzed by the province using false identifications of Métis would not be useful.”

Release of Unicef Report Card on Child Well-Being

Sept. 8, 2020: NationTalk – Release of Unicef “Innocenti Report Card 16: Worlds of Influence – Understanding What Shapes Child Well-being in Rich Countries” where Canada placed in the bottom 10 of 38 countries. In fact, all four countries with large Indigenous populations – who all initially opposed The United Nations Declaration the Rights of Indigenous People – ALL placed in the bottom 8: (Canada # 30, Australia # 32, New Zealand # 35 and the United States # 36) and experts attribute this to the poor health outcomes of Indigenous kids.

Unicef issued “Top 5 Policies to Defend Childhood in 2020” on Dec. 30, 2019 one of which # 3 “Ensure Fairness for indigenous Children.” The federal government should adopt the Spirit Bear Plan proposed by the First Nations Child and Family Caring Society and endorsed by the Chiefs of the Assembly of First Nations to permanently end funding shortfalls in the services provided to First Nations children. First Nations children and families living on reserve and in the Territories receive public services funded by the federal government. Since Confederation, these services have fallen significantly short of what other Canadians receive. In 2015, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission released its Calls to Action, including a call to achieve parity for First Nations, Inuit and Métis children. Equitable spending on public services for children including clean water, health care, education and protection is their right.

“My Fear is Losing Everything: Climate Crisis and First Nations Right to Food in Canada

Oct. 21, 2020: The Narwhal – Human Rights Watch released “My fear is Losing Everything: Climate Crisis and First Nations’ Right to Food” in Canada. The report details how longer and more intense forest fire seasons, permafrost degradation, volatile weather patterns and increased levels of precipitation are all affecting wildlife habitat and, in turn, harvesting efforts.  The report also outlines how there are more hunting and foraging risks due to warming temperatures. For instance, it’s harder — and sometimes impossible — to hunt caribou because the ice and permafrost they travel on isn’t stable enough for hunters. 

“Climate change threatens to decimate these food systems, risking further serious consequences for livelihoods and health,” the report states. The report also found that climate change is driving up prices for less-nutritious, store-bought alternatives that need to be brought in from the south. This is in part due to the fact that roads constructed from snow and ice are becoming less reliable because of warmer winters, meaning food needs to be flown in, which is far more expensive. This compounds the risk of food poverty for First Nations people, the report states.

Canada gets a failing grade on mitigating the effects of climate change, according to the report. The country is among the top 10 emitters of greenhouse gas emissions in the world, with per capita emissions upward of four times higher than the global average, the report states, noting that between 1990 and 2017, emissions increased by roughly 19 per cent, mainly due to mining and oil and gas production.  Canada is warming roughly twice as fast as the global average; in the North, it’s even worse, with temperatures rising three times as quick.

The report also found that climate change is driving up prices for less-nutritious, store-bought alternatives that need to be brought in from the south. This is in part due to the fact that roads constructed from snow and ice are becoming less reliable because of warmer winters, meaning food needs to be flown in, which is far more expensive. This compounds the risk of food poverty for First Nations people, the report states.

Canada gets a failing grade on mitigating the effects of climate change, according to the report. The country is among the top 10 emitters of greenhouse gas emissions in the world, with per capita emissions upward of four times higher than the global average, the report states, noting that between 1990 and 2017, emissions increased by roughly 19 per cent, mainly due to mining and oil and gas production.  Canada is warming roughly twice as fast as the global average; in the North, it’s even worse, with temperatures rising three times as quick.

Human Rights Watch lays out several recommendations for the federal government, including that:

  • Canada deem the right to food a basic human right
  • strengthen its climate change policies to reduce emissions
  •  improve climate adaptation measures in First Nations and
  • support a transition toward renewable energy, including for First Nations, in the COVID-19 stimulus package.

https://thenarwhal.ca/climate-change-indigenous-food-insecurity-report/https://www.hrw.org/report/2020/10/21/my-fear-losing-everything/climate-crisis-and-first-nations-right-food-canada – _ftn301

Beyond Hunger – The Hidden Impacts of Food Insecurity” Community Food Centre

Sept. 29, 2020: Community Food Centres (CFC) – Release of “Beyond Hunger – The Hidden Impacts of Food Insecurity in Canada”. Even before COVID-19, food insecurity affected nearly 4.5 million Canadians. In the first two months of the pandemic, that number grew by 39 per cent. Food insecurity now affects one in seven people, disproportionately impacting low-income and Black, Indigenous and People of Colour (BIPOC) communities. “Beyond Hunger illustrates that food insecurity is about equity and income,” says Saul. “We urgently need a national solution that goes beyond emergency food assistance. We need a solution founded in solid policy that addresses inadequate social programs, systemic racism and precarious employment.”

Why Food Insecurity happens in Canada”:

  • People are stuck in low wage and precarious jobs
  • Canadians are struggling with a rising cost of living
  • Colonialism and systemic racism
  • Low social assistance rates trap people in poverty
  • More and more people are living alone
  • Food in the North is unaffordable

Findings:

  • 81% say it takes a toll on their physical health
  • 79% say it impacts their mental health
  • 57% say it is harder to find and keep a good job
  • 53% say it is a barrier to finding meaning in life
  • 58% say it limits their ability to take part in social activities
  • 46% say it limits their ability to celebrate their culture

We believe government policy is necessary to address the real cause of food insecurity. Policy is what will increase incomes and make life more affordable — for everyone. Here are four policy changes for the federal government to act on:

  1. Invest in income supports for low income Canadians
    • Increase income benefits for single adults who suffer disproportionately from food insecurity by:
      • Ensuring low-wage workers have equal access to Employment Insurance
      • Improving existing tax benefits so they provide more income by making them refundable
      • Creating a tax credit specifically for working-age adults
    • Ensure low-income Canadians, especially First Nations living on reserve, have better access to tax filing supports and benefit services
  2. Make life more affordable for Canadians
    • Speed up the implementation of the Canada Housing Benefit, which supports people who can’t afford their housing
    • Increase federal funding for early learning and child care
    • Move forward with a universal public pharmacare program
  3. Set targets and improve reporting on food security
    • Set targets to reduce food insecurity
    • Ensure Statistics Canada reports on food insecurity annually and collects better race-based data
  4. Ensure progress on food insecurity is achieved equitably
    • In partnership with Northern leadership, continue to reform Nutrition North Canada
    • In partnership with Indigenous leadership, create an Indigenous food sovereignty fund
    • In partnership with Black communities, create a fund to decrease food insecurity for Black Canadians
    • Apply a racial equity lens to all poverty and food-security policies

https://cfccanada.ca/getmedia/57f5f963-af88-4a86-bda9-b98c21910b28/FINAL-BH-PDF-EN.aspx?_ga=2.197064812.159489303.1604624936-1692352870.1604624936

Failure of BC Government to respond to multiple requests from BC First Nations for information and resources to protect them from COVID-19

June 24, 2020: Globe and Mail – First Nations are among the most vulnerable populations in B.C., with the most to lose – the loss of an elder represents a loss of language, culture and history. First Nations are still waiting for the BC government to respond to repeated requests for more information and resources to protect communities and fulfill the following four basic measures:

  • An information-sharing agreement to ensure early reporting of suspected and confirmed cases in nearby regions to Indigenous governments;
  • screening methods to ensure travellers seeking to enter Indigenous territory are not symptomatic or infected with the virus; \
  • rapid-testing mechanisms available that can prioritize Indigenous and remote communities – in fact, there are currently just two rapid testing kits for all Indigenous communities in B.C.

And finally, funding for culturally safe contact-tracing that can increase the likelihood of effective tracing in the event of an outbreak, and reduce the risk of racist interactions with the health care system of the sort the government has decried.

We continue to call on the B.C. government to consult and meet with us, on a nation-to-nation basis, to begin implementing the four safety measures on an urgent basis, and to discuss the underlying issue of systemic racism, which appears to be driving the status quo of putting Indigenous lives at risk.

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/article-bcs-covid-19-re-opening-plans-continue-to-put-indigenous-people-at/

June 25, 2020: News 1130 – The Heiltsuk, Nuu-chah-nulth, and Tsilhqot’in nations say the provincial government didn’t consult them before throwing the doors open to non-essential travel. Their priority, they say, is protecting elders and Indigenous leaders say basic safety measures are not yet in place to be able to welcome travellers to their communities.

Independent investigation into systemic racism within the BC Health Care system

June 19, 2020 – First Nations, Métis and Inuit patients seeking emergency medical services in British Columbia are often assumed to be intoxicated and denied medical assessments, contributing to worsening health conditions resulting in unnecessary harm or death. This is according to information obtained by Métis Nation BC and the BC Association of Aboriginal Friendship Centres. Additionally, the parties have notified the First Nations Health Authority of this concern.

Participants within the San’yas Indigenous Cultural Safety Training program detail thousands of cases of racism in healthcare, resulting in the harm of Indigenous patients. In a recent training session, a program participant disclosed a common game played within B.C. hospital emergency rooms, where physicians, nurses and other staff try to guess the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of Indigenous patients. The winner of the game guesses closest to the BAC – without going over.

The Province of B.C. has yet to enforce standardized anti-racism training for health service workers

BCAAFC and MNBC, Indigenous leadership are calling upon the Ministry of Health to accept the following four recommendations:

  1. A public inquiry into Indigenous specific racism in health care in B.C with a focus on hospitals and emergency departments.
  2. Ensure that all front-line staff are required to take mandatory First Nations, Métis and Inuit training that results in increased health professional personal accountability in the delivery of safe health care.
  3. Commit to structural and systemic changes to dismantle indigenous specific racism to ensure culturally safe health care experiences for Indigenous people.
  4. Ensure that Indigenous governments play a stronger role in the development and implementation of anti-racism programs and training throughout BC.

July 9, 2020 – An independent investigation into Indigenous-specific racism in British Columbia’s health care system was launched today by former judge and provincial child advocate Mary Ellen Turpel-Lafond. Appointed by Health Minister Adrian Dix on June 19 after highly disturbing allegations of racism in B.C. Emergency rooms came to light, Turpel-Lafond has now assembled her team for the “Addressing Racism” investigation, established her terms of reference and launched a survey to collect and assess the experiences of First Nations, Métis and Inuit people when they access health care. “Our task is to address the specific incidents that have been reported, as well as to gauge the levels of systemic and individual racism that Indigenous people face when using the health care system in general,” Turpel-Lafond said. After examining the systemic racism that occurs in the health system, the investigation will make a number of recommendations designed to prompt necessary improvements.

https://engage.gov.bc.ca/addressingracism/turpel-lafond-launches-independent-investigation-into-indigenous-specific-racism-in-b-c-health-care/

Government of Quebec infringing on First Nations Aboriginal treaty rights by their failure to consult with First Nations on Bill 62’s impact on their health

June 5, 2020 – Bill 61, an omnibus bill (An Act to stimulate the economy of Quebec and mitigate the consequences of the state of health emergency), declared on March 13, 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic and tabled earlier this week by the CAQ government cannot be misused by the Quebec government to minimize its duty to consult First Nations and reduce the application of already low environmental standards to a minimum. It cannot take advantage of the current context to put the health of our populations on the back burner, nor can it more openly infringe First Nations’ Aboriginal and treaty rights,” said AFNQL Chief Ghislain Picard.

There is an opportunity here for the provincial government to put its words into action and listen to First Nations who are looking for a balance between their own economic recovery and the protection of their territories. In any case, as we have decades of experience of being excluded from the decisions that affect our communities, we will continue to do what it takes to ensure that our governments have a voice when it comes to the development of our non-ceded territories and resources,” concluded the Chief of the AFNQL.

First Nations protest against Manitoba Hydro Keeyask project due to COVID-19 health concerns.

Northern Manitoba First Nations had the highest rates of hospitalizations of all First Nations in Canada during the last H1N1 pandemic. MacLean’s July 16, 2009

May 21, 2020: CBC – Members of the four First Nation community partners of Manitoba Hydro’s Keeyask project (Tataskweyak, Fox Lake, War Lake and York Factory) have launched protests to protect their communities from COVID-19. Hydro is switching out the current 600 on-site employees with an outside group of 1000 some of whom are from outside Manitoba. The Manitoba Court of Queen’s Bench issued an injunction on Monday, ordering the blockade be removed and Hydro be granted access to the construction site. The injunction was served on Wednesday by members of the RCMP.

Chief Doreen Spence “ripped that injunction [and] put it on the ground,” Tataskweyak band Coun. Nathan Neckoway said Thursday morning.

A number of Tataskweyak Cree Nation community members who are concerned about the possible spread of COVID-19 started blocking Provincial Road 280 and the north access road to the Manitoba Hydro Keeyask work site on the weekend, in an attempt to stop a worker shift change scheduled for Tuesday. After the injunction was delivered, Fox Lake First Nation put up their own blockade on the Keeyask south access road.

May 20, 2020 – CBC We were not included in the discussion of the plan for the shift change,” said Robert Wavey, a band member and spokesperson for Fox Lake Cree Nation. “It was given to [First Nations] after Hydro came up with their plan.” “Our First Nations leaders do not want to see a repeat of what is happening in La Loche, Sask.,” Settee said in the letter, referencing a COVID-19 outbreak in the northern and largely Indigenous town, which affected more than 100 people.

Discrepancy in COVID-19 health data on Indigenous people from federal, provincial and territory government health sources

May 12, 2020: Yellowhead Institute release of Policy Brief: “Colonialism of the Curve: Indigenous Communities and Bad Covid Data”. There is wide discrepancy on COVID-19 related health data from Indigenous Services Canada  (ISC) and provincial health authorities:

  • There is no agency or organization in Canada reliably recording and releasing Covid-19 data that indicates whether or not a person is Indigenous.
  • The division of powers between provincial and federal government has gradually displaced and disrupted Indigenous governance over time.
  • ISC only gathers on-reserve data which eliminates over 50% of the Indigenous population who live off-reserve
  • Canadian federalism was established to serve Canadians and consequently maintains discrimination and sub-standard service delivery in on-reserve communities.
  • This jurisdictional fight between provinces and the federal government, where both claim the other is responsible for services, more often than not leaves Indigenous people without any services.

Through publicly available data—media reports, Band Council updates to members, local reports and obituaries—a team of researchers supported by Yellowhead has compiled and verified many more cases.

  • ISC: COVID-19 cases = 175; Deaths = 2
  • Yellowhead: COVID-19 cases = 465; Deaths = 7

The same gaps in data collection exist in child welfare and were a primary reason why the National Inquiry on Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls were unable to definitively identify the number of Indigenous women who have been murdered or are missing.

Publicly accessible data makes it easier for Indigenous people to seek accountability from leaders, and to independently evaluate and measure the efficacy of interventions by all levels of government, including our own Indigenous leadership. In fact, this is probably one of the reasons why we don’t have it.

Protecting the health of oilsands workers is more important than protecting the health of Indigenous people as evidenced by the suspension of environmental monitoring by Alberta Energy Regulator

May 8, 2020 – Clean Tech Canada (anadian Manufacturing) – The leader of a Fort McKay First Nation surrounded by oilsands development is frustrated by the Alberta Energy Regulator’s decision to suspend a wide array of environmental reporting requirements for oil sands companies over public-health concerns raised by the COVID-19 pandemic by the Imperial Oil, Suncor, Syncrude and Canadian Natural Resources Ltd. don’t have to perform much of the testing and monitoring originally required in their licences. The regulator says some programs are to resume by the end of September, but most have no restart date. The latest exemptions specifically relieve operators of the following:

  • Monitoring most ground and surface water, unless it enters the environmental
  • most all wildlife and bird monitoring is suspended
  • Air-quality programs, including one for the First Nations community of Fort McKay, have been reduced, along with many other conditions of the companies’ licences
  • Testing for leaks of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, has been suspended
  • Wetlands monitoring and research is gone until further notice
  • Water that escapes from storm ponds no longer must be tested

The decisions to suspend environmental monitoring were made unilaterally. We were not notified—in fact, we would have had no idea this had occurred if it had not been revealed in the press,” stated Mel Grandjamb, Chief of Fort McKay First Nation. Consultation would have enabled us to inform the regulator how its monitoring decisions impact our Nations. Both we and the industry would have been better served by the clarity that consultation would have contributed to these decisions.”

In the days leading up to these decisions, our representatives sat AER, government and industry representatives to provide oversight to environmental monitoring programs under the Oil Sands Monitoring Program. The fact AER did not mention once it was considering suspending monitoring, some of which may overlap with program work, is very disappointing. This neglect does not encourage reconciliation. In March, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers requested that the federal government relax several regulatory and policy activities, including an indefinite suspension of all consultation with industry to develop new environmental policies. At the same time, industry has lobbied the provincial government to resume consultation with Indigenous communities to advance projects despite the closure of our communities due to COVID-19 pandemic responses.

June 23. 2020 – All temporarily suspended reporting and monitoring requirements will come back into effect on July 15, 2020. The Alberta Energy Regulator’s (AER) decision to end its temporary suspensions follows steps taken by the Government of Alberta, including the repeal of Ministerial Order 219/2020 and Ministerial Order 17/2020.http://nationtalk.ca/story/aer-temporarily-suspended-requirements-to-resume-july-15

Reducing risk to Indigenous inmates of becoming infected by COVID-19

April 20, 2020 – First Nations leadership across BC is united in calling for immediate action to protect incarcerated peoples amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 outbreak at the Mission Institution is now the third largest outbreak in the Province of BC, with the first inmate tragically passing away on April 15, 2020. Senior health and corrections officials have verified that almost 40% of the confirmed cases of COVID-19 at Mission Institution are among Indigenous inmates despite Indigenous people making up just 5% of the population in BC.

April 23, 2020: The Indigenous Bar Association (IBA) Calls Upon Federal, Provincial and Territorial Justice Ministers and Attorneys General to Immediately Release low-risk Indigenous Inmates over COVID-19.Specifically, we call for the immediate release of incarcerated Indigenous people and the following actions:

  • Immediately and minimally, carry-out the release of Indigenous inmates that are low-risk, non-violent, nearly eligible for parole, nearing sentence end, over 50 years of age, pregnant women, those offenders who are able to be adequately supervised in the community, and those at heightened risk due to pre-existing medical and chronic health conditions;
  • The release of inmates described above to apply to federal and provincial correctional facilities, including all remand, youth and short-term detentions centres;
  • For those that absolutely cannot be released, ensure:
    • Full access to medical and mental health care;
    • Full and equitable access to personal protective equipment, medical grade sanitizer and cleaning agents, personal hygiene products, and other critical supplies, with invariable availability of these supplies to all inmates and correction workers (including officers, administrators, and all other employees and contractors);
    • Access to enhanced cultural supports during heightened safety measures, ensuring any quarantine of those incarcerated is carried out in the least traumatic way, in an attempt to mitigate resurgence of traumatic experiences or intergenerational effects of the legacy of colonialism;
  • In accordance with domestic and international laws and conventions, ensure that institutions do not use isolation methods that are akin to segregation punishment for infected inmates, specifically:
    • Individuals should not serve longer than 15 days in segregation, isolation, solitary confinement, medical removal or administrative removal;
    • Those who are segregated within the 15-day limit are given access to daily use of shower, telephone, and recreational facilities;
    • Those who are segregated are given daily access to mental health professionals in attempt to mitigate the lasting damage done by isolation;
  • Implement the short and long-term measures identified recently by the Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs in their open letter dated March 24, 2020; and
  • Correctional Services Canada and all provincial correctional jurisdictions implement the recommendations of the Correctional Investigator of Canada, Dr. Ivan Zinger and take notice of specific requests by Indigenous organizations and communities.  
First Nations infant deaths by sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were 4.5 times higher in Manitoba than non-First Nations infants

Mar. 13, 2020 – Release of Manitoba Advocate for Children and Youth (2020): Safe and Sound: A Special Report on the Unexpected Sleep-Related Deaths of 145 Manitoba Infants” According to population projections, Indigenous infants account for between 20-30% of live births in Manitoba during the study period (Jan. 2009 – Dec. 2018), but represent 57% of sleep-related infant deaths. That translates to 83 First Nations and Métis infants.

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Policies articulated in the Indian Act have excluded Indigenous Peoples from participation in economic life for generations, leading to intergenerational poverty. In evidence of ongoing systemic racism, many Indigenous families have unequal access to health services, they lack suitable stable housing, and access to clean drinking water. The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Manitobans is widening (Katz et al. 2019). Of the 13 recommendations, 7 are directed towards First Nations and Métis governments and various federal and provincial ministries.

https://manitobaadvocate.ca/wp- content/uploads/SafeSleep-Report.pdf

Failure of all governments to protect Indigenous people from H1N1 pandemic (27.8% of all infections in Canada in 2009 were Indigenous)

Mar. 17, 2020: Globe and Mail – Despite accounting for just under 5 per cent of the Canadian population, Indigenous people  were 25 per cent of those admitted to ICUs during the first wave of H1N1. First Nations children were 21 per cent of the paediatric patients admitted to ICUs during both waves. This led to sad and tragic outcomes. Indigenous peoples represented 17.6 per cent of the reported deaths in the first wave and 8.9 per cent of reported deaths in the second.

These figures likely reflect the lack of timely interventions and diagnoses that plague communities who depend on understaffed nursing stations for their health-care needs, as well as jurisdictional squabbling about roles and responsibilities.

John Borrows is Canada Research Chair in Indigenous Law at the University of Victoria Law School writing with Constance MacIntosh, Viscount Bennett Professor of Law at Schulich School of Law at Dalhousie University

Timmins Police Service, Timmins and District Hospital, Cochrane District Social Services Administration Board for discrimination against Indigenous people

Feb. 5, 2020 – Timmins The Daily Press – On the second anniversary of the deaths of Joey Knapaysweet and Agnes Sutherland, the Ontario Human Rights Commission (OHRC) announced it has filed an application with the Human Rights Tribunal of Ontario (HRTO) alleging discrimination based on Indigenous ancestry by public service providers in Timmins, Ontario.

The February 2018 deaths of Joey Knapaysweet and Agnes Sutherland highlight the serious and sometimes tragic result of systemic discrimination against First Nations peoples in Northern Ontario. Both Joey Knapaysweet and Agnes Sutherland traveled to Timmins from Fort Albany First Nation, more than 400 km away, to access health services that were not available in their community. These circumstances left them particularly vulnerable to discrimination.

The OHRC acts in the public interest and is committed to ensuring that Indigenous peoples receive equal access to essential services consistent with their unique cultural and language needs, pursuant to the Ontario Human Rights Code and consistent with the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The OHRC is seeking a variety of public interest remedies, including requiring the respondents to:

  • Engage with Indigenous communities to understand their concerns and needs
  • Develop policies and provide training to ensure that their services are delivered in a culturally competent and safe manner, free of discrimination
  • Develop a human resources plan to promote and expand the hiring and promotion of Indigenous staff
  • Collect human rights-based data to identify problems and monitor solutions.
Health Canada, Government of Canada and Government of Alberta’s refusal to conduct a baseline health survey as recommended by provincial health organizations

Dec. 17, 2019: Canada’s National Observer – Repeated failure by government authorities to conduct a comprehensive baseline health study as recommended by the Alberta Cancer Board (supported by the province’s governing health authority, Alberta Health Services) in 2009. In Fort Chipewyan a community of roughly 1,200 people, the study found, you would expect to see 39 cases of cancer. Instead, it found 51 cases, a difference of 30.7 per cent. The Athabaska River flows through Canada’s oil patch, giving rise to the theory that the oil-and-gas industry is responsible for the illnesses, having poisoned people for years by contaminating the environment. Government bodies and researchers have challenged that theory, leading to a call for a new more conclusive health study that could provide real answers.

Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation and Mikisew Cree First Nation pooled their resources to fund research. With some additional funding from Health Canada, a three-year, $1-million study was led by Stephane McLachlan, a professor at the University of Manitoba. His findings released in 2014 measured contaminants not only in water but also in beavers, ducks, fish, moose and muskrats — animals consumed as part of a traditional diet for those who continue to live off the land in the Peace-Athabasca Delta. He concluded that the animals contained high concentrations of pollutants such as carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals such as arsenic, mercury, cadmium and selenium. All of these are by-products of extracting and upgrading bitumen. Arsenic in particular has been linked to increased risk of biliary tract cancer.

Accepted practice of Thunder Bay Regional Hospital security escorting Indigenous patients in need of medical care off of hospital property

Nov. 9, 2019: Toronto Star – A 19-year old First Nations man taken to the hospital by ambulance in obvious distress was escorted off the hospital property three hours later by security staff. Apparently, escorting Indigenous people who are seeking medical care off of hospital property is common practice. The would be patient ultimately committed suicide at a remote part of nearby Lakehead University. 

An internal review of the case by the hospital “concluded that appropriate actions were taken and that the right decisions were made by clinical staff based on the information provided to them and the patient’s presentation.” 
Tanya Talaga, Toronto Star

An investigation is currently underway by Ontario’s chief coroner, Dirk Huyer. He told me it will look for any “potential systemic issues that may have played a role in contributing to the death — policies, procedures, steps taken.” It will also examine whether this death is part of a pattern — and make any recommendations necessary to break that pattern.

Federal Government and Government of Ontario for ongoing failure to address access to health issues in Nishnawbe Aski Nation who have declared a Public Health Emergency across NAN territory

Oct. 23, 2019 – Nishnawbe Aski Nation (NAN) Resolution 16/04 Call for Declaration of Public Health Emergency. The Sioux Lookout Chiefs Committee on Health and the NAN Executive declared a Health and Public Health Emergency for First Nations across NAN territory.  This Declaration was not made lightly.  It was forced into existence by decades of perpetual crisis and persistent health care inequities at the NAN community level.  The Declaration is an assertion of the inherent Treaty rights of NAN members to equal opportunities for health, including access to appropriate, timely, high-quality health care, regardless of where they live, what they have or who they are.

In order to exercise our self-determination over health we need to bring back accountability, responsibility and resource allocation to our communities.  This involves changing the current colonial system to a new system that is based on the needs and priorities of our communities. This led to the execution of a trilateral commitment document: The Charter of Relationship Principles Governing Health System Transformation in NAN Territory (the Charter) which was mandated by NAN Resolution 17/21. The Charter was signed by the Parties (Grand Chief Alvin Fiddler, Minister Jane Philpott and Minister Eric Hoskins) on July 24, 2017.

In order to support the NAN Health Transformation process, the governments agreed to several actions, including:

  • Developing new approaches to improve the health and health access, including access at the community level.
  • Supporting the ability of First Nations communities and organizations to deliver their own services.
  • Proposing policy reform and exploring legislative changes to design a new health system for NAN territory, including sustainable funding models and decision-making structures.
  • Removing barriers caused by jurisdiction, funding, policy, culture and structures so that First Nations can deliver better plan, design and manage their own services

NAN is a political territorial organization representing 49 First Nation communities within northern Ontario with the total population of membership (on and off reserve) around 45,000 people. http://www.nan.on.ca/upload/documents/mushkikiw-wiichihiitiiwin-gathering-fina.pdf

July 9, 2020 – Minister of Indigenous Services, announced $2,657,560 to support the Nishnawbe Aski Nation (NAN) Mental Health and Addictions Pandemic Response Program, a unique First Nation-led initiative responding to the specific health needs of community members in northern Ontario. It will identify the mental health and wellness services that are already available, and bridge the existing gaps so that every individual can have access to culturally safe and community based mental health services when needed. Keewaytinook Okimakanak (KO) eHealth and Sioux Lookout First Nations Health Authority (SLFNHA) will run the program, which is designed to provide community members with equal access to high-quality, culturally safe substance use treatment and mental health services with direct input from communities. The services will be coordinated, delivered and promoted by the Regional Health Authorities, Tribal Councils, and community organizations within the NAN region, and will offer access to 24/7 culturally appropriate crisis supports, triage and live service navigation, improved usage of tele-mental health supports, and will help eliminate duplication in existing mental health and problematic substance use services.

Government of Nunavut’s repeated failure to implement Canadian Paediatric Society recommendations to administer Palivizumab to all Inuit babies with respiratory issues

Oct. 20, 2019 : Globe and Mail – A group of doctors is urging officials in Nunavut to offer an effective but costly drug to all Inuit babies living in remote communities in the territory to protect them against a respiratory virus that disproportionately leads to their hospitalization. But Nunavut’s chief medical officer disagrees, saying there isn’t enough evidence to support such an approach. Palivizumab, the only available prophylactic treatment for RSV, is currently given to infants in Canada who are considered at high risk of complications, such as those born prematurely or who have underlying heart or lung conditions. But it is not routinely administered in Nunavut to healthy Inuit infants who are born at full term.

For most people, symptoms of RSV infection are indistinguishable from the common cold, although an estimated 1 to 3 per cent of infants in developing countries experience complications requiring hospitalization. Inuit babies in Canada, however, have an exceptionally high rate of RSV complications. Among some Inuit communities on Baffin Island, as many as half to two-thirds of babies are hospitalized with lower respiratory lung infections, mostly owing to RSV, according to Anna Banerji, an expert on Indigenous and refugee health and associate professor of pediatrics at the University of Toronto who helped start the petition. Although it is not entirely understood why, experts believe Inuit infants are disproportionately affected because of a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including food insecurity and a lack of adequate housing arising from a history of forced settlement.

Government of Manitoba for worsening health outcomes of First Nations people comparing data from 2015 – 17 vs 2002.

Sept. 17, 2019University of Manitoba Today – Joint study by the First Nations Health and Social Secretariat of Manitoba (FNHSSM) and the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP) in the Rady Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Manitoba, “The Health Status of and Access to Healthcare by Registered First Nation Peoples in Manitoba” compares health data collected in 2015-2017 with the results of a study the MCHP published in 2002.
“When we look at health status and health-care access, the inequities between First Nation people and all other Manitobans have gotten worse, according to many indicators,” said Leona Star, a Cree woman who is director of research at FNHSSM and co-led the study. For example, the First Nations life expectancy from birth in 2002 was 7 years lower than for the non-Indigenous population; in 2019 First Nations life expectancy from birth is now 11 years lower.

Other disturbing trends:

  • First Nation people’s rate of premature mortality (death before age 75): 2002 = 2x other Manitobans; 2019 =now 3x
  • Suicide rates for First Nations people = 5 x higher
  • Suicide attempts by First Nations people = 6x higher

As we have now documented that health inequities have increased since 2002, we propose the following specific actions: 

  1. Annual reporting on progress in addressing gaps in health and access to healthcare; 
  2. Development of strategic initiatives for equitable access to intervention and prevention measures (including addressing racism in the health system through mandatory cultural safety training for all staff, hiring of First Nation providers, new human resource policies for safe reporting of racist incidents); 
  3. Development of short- and long-term plans for the training and hiring of First Nation healthcare professionals; 
  4. Further development of research partnerships among MCHP, MHSAL, FNHSSM and Manitoba First Nations; 
  5. Setting First Nations on the path to borderless healthcare delivery by improving access to primary care healthcare that is designed and delivered through First Nations-led partnerships. 

http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/reference//FN_Report_web.pdf

Government of Ontario for failure to consult First Nations on Bill C-74 “The People’s Health Care Act, 2019

Feb. 28, 2019 – Bill-74 “The People’s Health Care Act, 2019” does not contain recognition of First Nations jurisdiction in health area and specifically Articles 18 and 23, of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, have not been recognized, as there has been no consultation with First Nations in developing this legislation. (Chiefs of Ontario)

This legislation is set to create a new Agency called Ontario Health, which will be formed by dissolving the province’s 14 Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs) and merging their duties with those of six other health agencies, including Cancer Care Ontario and eHealth Ontario. First Nations must be involved in the conversation if we are to improve the overall health of First Nations in Ontario,” said Ontario Regional Chief RoseAnne Archibald. “We hope for a continued collaboration between First Nations and the Government of Ontario, so First Nations can provide a recommended approach that will lead to overall healthcare improvement and address the gap within First Nations healthcare. “

Government of Manitoba for failing to address the overwhelming need for access to mental health and addiction services by Indigenous people

March 31, 2018 – Release of the Virgo Final Report: “Improving Access and Coordination of Mental Health and Addiction Services: A Provincial Strategy for all Manitobans” specifically emphasizes the discovery made during the system review that for almost every service encountered, the largest percentage of people being served were of Indigenous background. 

The report acknowledges the “history of colonization and historical trauma, and ongoing challenges with respect to social determinants of health. More importantly, we believe the overall system of services will not improve significantly in terms of access or coordination without a concerted and sustained effort to better meet the needs of the province’s Indigenous people.

Of the many issues brought forward unique to Indigenous people, two were particularly salient:

  • the need for more culturally informed services, including land-based programs, and support for those community members whose customary language is their own native language and who have trouble understanding words and concepts expressed in English. Last,
  • the “jurisdictional issue”— a fundamental challenge to be addressed going forward as it underlies significant issues related to access and coordination. This was one of the top priorities identified in the validation events.

Other specific issues identified previously with respect to the preceding Strategic Priorities, including,

  • the need for more local, and more flexible, services, including longer term treatment and pre-and post-treatment supports; 
  • the need for better integration of SUA and MH (substance use/addiction and mental health problems and illnesses) services; 
  • the need to fill specific gaps for youth and women; and 
  • a critical need for Withdrawal Management Services (WMS), transitional stabilization to support access to treatment, housing, transportation and crisis services, including post-crisis healing opportunities.

https://www.gov.mb.ca/health/mha/docs/mha_strategic_plan.pdf

Federal, Provincial, Territory Governments for failure to include Indigenous health within the Canadian Health Act

Sept. 21, 2017: Healthy Debates – “Indigenous health services often hampered by legislative confusion“. The federal and provincial governments negotiate health transfers based on the Canada Health Act, which specifies the conditions and criteria required of provincial health insurance programs. It doesn’t mention First Nations and Inuit peoples, Métis and non-status or off-reserve Indigenous peoples who are covered by the Indian Act.

This lack of clarity – and lack of policies for providing Indigenous health services – has historically been used by both the federal government and provinces to narrowly define their responsibilities toward Indigenous health. It’s created bureaucratic delays that leave Indigenous peoples waiting for care or medications readily available to non-Indigenous Canadians. And it’s created gaps in care between Indigenous and non-status and First Nations people living off-reserve.

“The move to a new fiscal relationship is significant,” Grand Chief Doug Kelly, chair of the First Nations Health Authority of BC says. Leaving Indigenous people out of health care discussions and program design hasn’t worked. Instead, he says, First Nations communities should be empowered to identify their priorities and develop a plan. Once costs are attached, communities would negotiate with the government for transfer payments. Groups like the First Nations Health Managers Association that Marion Crowe, Executive Director represents, have been working to prepare communities for the eventual transfer of responsibility, focusing on developing health human resource and health administrative capacity within First Nations communities.

Government of Manitoba for refusing to conduct a public inquiry into the death of an Indigenous man, Brian Sinclair, who died as a direct result of institutional racism at the Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre

Sept. 15, 2017: CBC – Brian Sinclair was killed by racism on Sept. 21, 2008.  He was ignored for 34 hours, despite his need for urgent medical care, because medical professionals made negative assumptions about him based solely on his appearance. Anti-Indigenous bias is an endemic problem in Canadian health care:

  • The hospital authority denied that stereotyping had anything to do with Mr. Sinclair’s death.
  • The government of Manitoba refused to hold a public inquiry.
  • The inquest into Mr. Sinclair’s death sidelined issues of race and social marginalization.
  • Regulatory bodies have been slow to implement any changes, if at all, and
  • no one has been held accountable for professional misconduct or criminal neglect.

The findings of the Manitoba Ombudsman rely on the government’s health and justice departments “appraising their own progress.” http://s3.documentcloud.org/documents/5782400/Brian-Sinclair-Final-Report-En.pdf.

The Brian Sinclair Working group was formed to examine the role of racism in the death of Brian Sinclair and in the inquest that followed, in order to highlight ongoing structural and systemic anti-Indigenous racism in our contemporary health and legal systems. The Sinclair family and the Sinclair Working Group have called for a public inquiry to explore the underlying systemic racism in the delivery of Health services to Indigenous populations. The Working Group aims to release a final report in 2018. The interim report “Ignored to Death” was issued Sept. 2017

Sept, 2017 – “Out of Sight: A summary of the events leading up to Brian Sinclair’s death and the inquest that examined it and the Interim Recommendations of the Brian Sinclair Working Group”. Over-all recommendation:
We recommend that all stakeholders in the healthcare system (including the federal government, the provincial government, Regional Health Authorities, unions, professional organizations, and post-secondary institutions involved in the delivery of professional programs) adopt anti-racist policies and implementation strategies that include committing resources to providing anti-racist training and supporting independent investigations when complaints are filed.
http://ignoredtodeathmanitoba.ca/index.php/2017/09/15/out-of-sight-interim-report-of-the-sinclair-working-group/

Saskatoon Health Region for forcing Indigenous women to undergo tubal ligations while in labour

July 22, 2017 -Indigenous women were coerced into having a tubal ligation in Saskatoon hospitals while still in labour. A class action lawsuit was initiated on October 5, 2017 by two affected women in the Saskatoon Health Region. (CBC). Now about 60 women are part of the lawsuit. Authorities should very carefully read Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide adopted by the UN in 1948”, Romeo Saganash, an NDP MP said. “It says that “genocide” includes any acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, such as by “imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group.”
Dec. 10, 2018 – 72 organizations endorse the joint statement from Amnesty International Canada, the Native Women’s Association of Canada, and Action Canada for Sexual Health and Rights, calling for government action to #DefendConsent and end #ForcedSterilization of Indigenous women in Canada 

All the women interviewed felt that the health system had not served their needs, and they had felt powerless to do anything about it. Aboriginal women who have had such an experience that prevents them from accessing health care are aware that they are higher risk for negative consequences of health problems that are preventable or treatable if diagnosed early; they still cannot get past their distrust. In its submission to the UN committee, the law firm said there has been no effort at a comprehensive review to understand the scale of the problem or the conditions that make forced sterilizations possible. (Canadian Press)
Nov. 22, 2018 – Senator Murray Sinclair, former Chair of the TRC, says Canada needs a national investigation to find out how common coerced sterilizations are among Indigenous women and how they’ve been allowed to continue for so long.
http://nationtalk.ca/story/usw-joint-statement-calling-on-canada-to-end-sterilization-without-consent