Business and Reconciliation

Current Reality

Nov. 22, 2016: National Indigenous Economic Development Board – Overall, if the gap in opportunities for Indigenous communities across Canada were closed, it would result in an increase in GDP of $27.7 billion annually or a boost of about 1.5% to Canada’s economy.

The report, Reconciliation: Growing Canada’s Economy by $27.7 Billion, demonstrates in hard numbers how keeping Indigenous Canadians out of the economy by under-investing in education, infrastructure and other services, has hit Canada’s bottom line. The report estimates that Canada’s GDP would grow by 1.5% or $27.7 billion per year if barriers preventing Indigenous Canadians from participating in the Canadian economy were removed.

The Problem:

New research suggests that more than five in six Canadian businesses are completely disengaged with Canada’s indigenous peoples. The opportunity now is to view this metric as an incentive to partner with a committed and fast-growing community that has much to offer. By engaging with Indigenous communities, Canadian businesses can realize a host of important immediate and long-term benefits:

  • opportunities to expand into new markets
  • access to Canada’s fastest growing demographic and labour pool
  • enhanced corporate reputations in the eyes of Indigenous peoples and Canadians of all walks of life, and
  • more respectful and accommodating workplace cultures

The survey divides corporate Canada into four broad groups:

  • Disengaged Majority = have not prioritized engagement in any way
  • Engagement Novices: initial stages of understanding value of engagement
  • Relationship Developers: appreciate value of ling-term partnerships
  • Committed Partners: demonstrate capacities to sustain partnerships and create positive outcomes

April 18, 2020 – Federal Government announced up to $306.8 million in funding to help small and medium-sized Indigenous businesses, and to support Aboriginal Financial Institutions that offer financing to these businesses. The funding will allow for short-term, interest-free loans and non-repayable contributions through Aboriginal Financial Institutions, which offer financing and business support services to First Nations, Inuit, and Métis businesses. These measures will help 6,000 Indigenous-owned businesses get through these difficult times.

The government also announced top-up funding on June 11, 2020 of $138M as follows:

  • $117 million will reach more community-owned First Nation, Inuit and Métis businesses including microbusinesses, who are not eligible for existing business support measures. Indigenous communities rely on these businesses to provide revenue for important services, and to create meaningful jobs.
  • a new stimulus development fund that will provide $16 million to support the Indigenous tourism industry. The Indigenous Tourism Association of Canada will administer the fund to businesses across the country that have lost revenue due to COVID-19.

Aug. 6, 2021 – The Government of Canada is implementing a mandatory requirement for federal departments and agencies to ensure a minimum of 5% of the total value of contracts are held by Indigenous businesses. This follows on the Dec. 13, 2019 announcement committing to increase procurement spend with Indigenous business partners to 5% through mandate letter of Anita Anand, Minister of Public Services and Procurement.

Call to Action #92Adopt UNDRIP as reconciliation framework

Current and Ongoing Problems

Duty to Consult

J.D. Irving, Limited and “18 of its subsidiaries or related entities;” NB Power; Acadian Timber; Twin Rivers Paper; HJ Crabbe & Sons; and A.V. Group have been added to the Wolastoqey Nation lawsuit against the Government of New Brunswick

Dec. 1, 2021: APT – The chiefs of Wolastoqey Nation have added to their lawsuit against the province of New Brunswick, this time adding a number of corporations for conducting business on their territory without consent…the chiefs said that the corporations operate on “20 percent of the more than five million hectares identified in the claim as the traditional lands of the Wolastoqey in New Brunswick.

“These private companies are beneficiaries of the land, water, and resources that were illegally taken from us,” says Patricia Bernard, chief of Matawaskiye First Nation. “This is our traditional, unceded and un-surrendered land and we are owed compensation for the last two hundred years of land and resource theft.” The corporations named Tuesday are include J.D. Irving, Limited and “18 of its subsidiaries or related entities;” NB Power; Acadian Timber; Twin Rivers Paper; HJ Crabbe & Sons; and A.V. Group.

Today, the Wolastoqey chiefs filed a new version of their title claim, focusing on major forestry companies that occupy traditional lands. The lawsuit now includes major forestry companies including J.D. Irving and the province’s power utility over exploration on traditional lands without consent.

Métis Nation – Saskatchewan filed a claim against NexGen Energy for breach of its obligations to negotiate an Impact Benefit Agreement

Sept. 9, 2020: NationTalk – The Métis Nation – Saskatchewan (“MN-S”) has filed a claim against NexGen Energy Ltd. in the Court of Queen’s Bench for Saskatchewan. MN-S is seeking from the Court:

  • a declaration that NexGen is in breach of its obligations to negotiate an Impact Benefit Agreement (“IBA”) with MN-S in good faith and on a best efforts basis;
  • an interlocutory injunction restraining NexGen from filing its draft environmental impact statement in respect of the Rook 1 Project (the “Project”);
  • damages; and costs.

The Project is located within the heart of MN-S Northern Region II and the Métis Northwest Land Claim. In 2018, Canada agreed to a process to address the Northwest Land Claim. MN-S and MN-S Northern Region II leadership are concerned that the Project will have significant and long-lasting impacts on Métis communities, Métis lands, and Métis rights and culture, particularly in MN-S Northern Region II.

The Project is going to be huge and will impact our communities, culture, lands and rights for generations, and in ways we will not know or understand for years to come. It will also strip away a key resource from the Northwest Claim and leave a hazardous legacy. NexGen’s commitments to negotiate an IBA under the Study Agreement provided an opportunity for us to work together for mutual benefit, and in a way that would respect, protect and advance Métis rights and interests and the health and wellbeing of the communities in MN-S Northern Region II.

NexGen refused to meet MN-S representatives if they had counsel or advisors present. The rights and concerns of Saskatchewan Métis have been marginalized for too long. The Government of Saskatchewan has encouraged this approach through its unconstitutional 2010 First Nation and Métis Consultation Policy Framework, which discourages or outrightly rejects consideration of Métis rights-based concerns

Recommendation # 13 from Commission of Inquiry into Muskrat Falls Project find government did not act fairly in its consultations related to Indigenous people and environmental matters

July 29, 2020: NationTalk – Dwight Ball, Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador provided an update on the progress of recommendations from the Commission of Inquiry into the Muskrat Falls Project. The final report was released to the public on March 10, 2020. Government has accepted the goals and objectives of all the recommendations in the commission’s report. Government established a deputy ministers’ steering committee to oversee the implementation of all the recommendations including the 17 key and ancillary recommendations outlined in Volume 1.

Key Finding # 13 PROGRESS: Executive Council developing a Terms of Reference and engaging a consultant. Timeline: Short Term – Up to 6 months.

Key Finding # 13 of the Muskrat Falls Final Report issued on Mar. 10, 2020 stated: GNL failed to ensure that it and Nalcor acted fairly in its consultations related to Indigenous Peoples and environmental matters. While not speaking to GNL’s legal obligation regarding consultation with the Indigenous groups in Labrador, GNL did not act appropriately from a fairness perspective with the Nunatsiavut Government, the NunatuKavut Community Council and the Innu of Ekuanitshit. GNL and Nalcor created an environment of mistrust and suspicion by not allowing all of the Indigenous Peoples and other concerned citizens to engage in a meaningful and transparent consultation process. This mistrust and suspicion led to protests that caused Project delays and significant cost overruns


Government of Ontario using COVID-19 to restrict consultation on development of Ring of Fire mining operations

May 22, 2020: Policy options – “Pandemic shouldn’t impede meaningful Indigenous engagement on Ring of Fire”. Ontario government announced that “a regional assessment of potential mining operations for the Ring of Fire will be undertaken”. The announcement only posted on the agency website severely impacts the ability of First Nations to meaningfully engage in the consulting process. Only those registered on the email distribution received the email notification that:

  • Agency suspended all face-to-face meetings
  • Cancelled all engagement activities
  • Agency will continue to develop a regional assessment and plan with a much more constrained engagement

As evidence demonstrates, inadequate internet access and a lack of cellular networks access to remote regions in Northern Ontario put First Nations at a greater disadvantage in efforts to participate at a distance during the global pandemic.  For remote First Nations in Northern Ontario, the agency must work harder to ensure that the voices of communities implicated in the Ring of Fire regional assessment are not further silenced by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Vague statements such as the one released to the email distribution list do little to provide implicated communities, organizations, and individuals the clarity required to adequately adjust and prepare for consultation opportunities once the threat of COVID-19 subsides. In the meantime, it is imperative that First Nation community members and leadership, scholars, activists, policy-makers, consultants and other groups interested in Ontario’s Ring of Fire remain as vigilant as possible during COVID in monitoring developments in the region and ensuring major decisions are not made without critical thought or meaningful Indigenous and public engagement.

Government of Ontario repeal of the “Far North Act”

Apr. 17, 2019 – Repeal of the “Far North Act“ to reduce restrictions on projects like all-season roads, electrical transmission projects and development of the Ring of Fire “doesn’t do enough to protect the rights of First Nations and will likely lead to “renewed conflict” with Indigenous communities, according to Dayna Scott, an associate professor at Osgoode Hall and a co-director of the law school’s environmental justice and sustainability clinic.

Scott states, “What the government is proposing to replace it with — largely the Public Lands Act — is “even worse in terms of giving communities the power to make decisions about land uses in their territories.” “For Industry and government, our Indigenous laws, title and rights are just more red tape.” “Repeal your laws but respect our laws”, Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug (K.I.) Chief Donny Morris

Unilateral decision by Quebec Government to re-open mining operations in northern Quebec without consulting the Inuit

Apr. 20, 2020 – Makivik Corporation, who represent the Inuit of Nunavik, is strongly opposed to the resumption of mining activities in the Nunavik region. The decision was made unilaterally by the government of Quebec without consultation whatsoever with the Inuit and was further supported by a directive issued by the Nunavik’s Director of Public Health, and Nunavik’s Director of Civil Security to partially lift the travel ban to Nunavik for the purpose of the reopening of the mining sites. Inuit account for the vast majority of the population in Nunavik and need to have a say on major regional issues such as this one. Miners started returning to the region yesterday.

“Makivik will not entertain the opening of any mines at this time in Nunavik. This is very dangerous. The Inuit elected officials in the communities and in the different regional organizations need to be heard and need to make the decisions and call the shots. Nunavik cannot and will not be governed by civil servants who may be tempted to use the pandemic to empower themselves” says Makivik President Charlie Watt. “We have written numerous letters to Quebec on different issues related to the pandemic and they have not responded…not even an acknowledgement of receipt.” As the signatory to the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (JBNQA) and the Raglan and Nunavik Nickel Agreement, Makivik Corporation is the political representative of the Inuit of Nunavik, and this is without question. Quebec can’t ignore Makivik and has to fully respect the spirit and intent of the JBNQA. The Inuit can’t accept to go through another bad episode of colonialism in 2020.

Individual Business Issues

Ontario and Lottery and Gaming (OLG) fails to honour a revenue sharing agreement made 13 years ago with a consortium of 132 Ontario First Nations

Sept. 29, 2021: Toronto Star – For the third time in two-and-a-half years a judge has slapped down the Ontario government and the OLG for failing to honour a revenue sharing agreement it made 13 years ago with a consortium of 132 Ontario First Nations.

The case begins with a 2008 revenue sharing agreement between the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation and the Ontario First Nations Limited Partnership (OFNLP). In that agreement, the province is required to give 1.7 per cent of three types of revenue streams to the OFNLP — gambling revenue from sources like lotteries and casino gaming, plus two types of non-gambling revenue such as hotel stays and food and beverage.

But while privatizing the operations of casinos in the province, the OLG unilaterally agreed to allow private operators to keep all non-gambling revenue and did not inform its First Nations partners about the changes, conduct one judge on a three-judge arbitration panel in 2019 called “breathtaking in the age of reconciliation.”

The Sept. 1 ruling by the Court of Appeal upholds an earlier Superior Court ruling that the provincial government and the OLG breached the terms of that landmark revenue-sharing agreement, even though the OLG no longer receives cash from the two non-gambling revenue streams.

The 2008 deal was struck to settle a $2-billion claim over an earlier agreement that entitled the First Nations to a share of revenue from the Casino Rama complex, which is located on the reserve lands of The Chippewas of Rama First Nation, near Orillia.

After years of negotiation that included high-level government officials and solemn ceremonies in accordance with First Nations tradition, the province and the OFNLP agreed to a 25-year deal.

The rulings state that the crown corporation was aware that its decision to exclude the two revenue streams could lead to less revenue for the OFNLP, yet did not disclose this. “At the meeting with OFNLP’s board of directors in December 2015, the chairman of OLG’s board of directors stated that it was ‘time to enter an era of respect’ between OLG and First Nations,” the ruling stated, adding, “But he failed to tell OFNLP’s board about the plan to stop sharing (the two revenue streams) with First Nations.”

Around that time, the OLG told the provincial Ministry of Finance about its plan to stop sharing the two revenue streams with the First Nations partnership. But the ruling states “no one within the Ontario government ever told” the Ministry of Indigenous Relations and Reconciliation, which was responsible for administering the agreement at the time.

The OFNLP only found out about the OLG’s decision in June 2016, through a footnote in an audited revenue statement.

Catalyst – A new study “Building Inclusion for Indigenous Peoples in Canadian Workplaces”, found 52% of Indigenous Peoples working in Canada said they are regularly on guard to experiences of bias

Feb. 10, 2021: Catalyst – A new study “Building Inclusion for Indigenous Peoples in Canadian Workplaces”, found 52% of Indigenous Peoples working in Canada said they are regularly on guard to experiences of bias, a hallmark of emotional tax, with women on guard (67%) significantly more than men (38%). The new research shows that in addition to paying an emotional tax—the combination of being on guard to protect against bias because of race, ethnicity, and gender and experiencing the associated effects on well-being and ability to thrive at work—only 39% of Indigenous employees feel psychologically safe at work.

Psychological safety is when employees feel they can make mistakes and take risks without being penalized, and Indigenous employees who do not experience it are less likely to report a sense of belonging or being valued for their uniqueness, speak up when something isn’t right, experience task focus, or be able to exhibit creativity.

“Indigenous people in Canada, especially women, continue to face some of the workplace’s most entrenched hurdles, including bias and discrimination that impact their health, well-being, and ability to progress,” says Vandana Juneja, Executive Director, Canada, Catalyst. “Companies must take intentional action to understand the unique challenges and biases faced by Indigenous employees, and specifically how these experiences impact their work experience, to help inform solutions.”

The report, led by Jennifer Thorpe-Moscon, PhD, and Joy Ohm, finds that when leaders create an empowering workplace, show accountability, and demonstrate humility, Indigenous employees feel more psychologically safe. The study surveyed 86 Indigenous Peoples working in Canada, including First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples. Indigenous Peoples comprise 4.9% of the total Canadian population.

“These findings provide employers with a unique opportunity to address inequities experienced in the workplace by Indigenous employees,” said Thorpe-Moscon, Vice President, Research, and Chair, Catalyst Award, Catalyst. “The goal is for inclusive leaders to enable a culture of empowerment, accountability, and humility that creates an environment where Indigenous employees can belong, contribute, and thrive in the workplace.”

Business and Reconciliation: An Update Exploring the Performance of Public Companies in Canada” suggests that corporate Canada is slow to recognize the value of tracking and reporting on Indigenous relations and reconciliation

Feb. 8, 2021: Reconciliation and Responsible Investment Initiative – RRII, a partnership between the National Aboriginal Trust Officers Association (NATOA) and the Shareholder Association for Research and Education (SHARE) released a report “Business and Reconciliation: An Update Exploring the Performance of Public Companies in Canada” that “suggests that corporate Canada is slow to recognize the value of tracking and reporting on Indigenous relations and reconciliation”. The report reviewed company disclosures using a broad set of indicators to measure  progress in advancing reconciliation since the release of a benchmark report in 2017. Research on a sample of 78 companies found a 26 percent increase in the number of companies stating that they prioritize employment of Indigenous people, up from 13 percent in 2016. In addition, there was a 28 percent increase in companies that reference Indigenous heritage or identity in board of director diversity policies, and a 22 percent increase in senior management policies.

“However, regular and standardized reporting on company performance is still regrettably far from commonplace,” Wheatley added. The research suggests that companies are more inclined to provide qualitative, piecemeal information on their reconciliation efforts rather than year-over-year quantitative reporting, which would improve their transparency and accountability to investors and other stakeholders.

“Where we want to see greater transparency from companies is in areas like Indigenous contracting and procurement,” said Mark Sevestre, Senior Advisor and Founding Member of the National Aboriginal Trust Officers Association. “Efforts to increase business relationships with Indigenous-owned companies are critical to growing the Indigenous economy and expanding economic opportunities in our communities, yet our report finds that only 12 percent of companies are currently disclosing that information.”

The report analyzed disclosures from companies across eight sector indices: finance, healthcare, consumer discretionary, consumer staples, energy, materials, renewable energy and clean technology, and telecommunications, and found marked differences in disclosure practices between sectors. The research reviews company disclosures using a broad set of indicators in the following five themes:

  • Recognition of Indigenous peoples in diversity policies and corporate leadership;
  • Employment and advancement of Indigenous employees;
  • Employment-related training and education;
  • Commitment to upholding Indigenous rights; and
  • Community investment and support and support



  • Adopt and report annually against reconciliation-oriented indicators such as those employed in this study
  • Set targets to improve the representation of Indigenous people across your organizations including as board members, employees, business partners and suppliers;
  • Solicit independent, external support to prepare and improve upon reconciliation- related disclosures and targets, such as the CCAB and the Social Awareness Group;
  • Consider committing to the CCAB’s PAR program, which provides a powerful framework to enhance corporate performance in Indigenous relations and offers direct supports to build company- specific commitments that are informed by regional and sectoral considerations;42
  • Communicate to regulators and industry bodies the need for additional guidance and standards on reconciliation-related disclosures and best practices


  • Consider incorporating the recent CBCA amendments regarding Indigenous heritage and/or identity in provincial corporate statutes to extend diversity and disclosure rules to provincially-registered corporations


  • Encourage investee companies to improve their policies, practices, and disclosure on reconciliation and Indigenous relations;
  • Encourage investee companies to set meaningful targets on their performance related to reconciliation and Indigenous relations;
  • Communicate to asset managers the need to incorporate reconciliation and Indigenous relations performance into investment decision-making processes;
  • Communicate to data providers the need to improve data related to reconciliation and Indigenous relations.
Clean-up of toxic waste and environmental damage left behind by Giant Mine when they ceased operations in the Northwest territories will cost up to $1B

Feb. 3, 3021: CBC – The Giant Mine operated from 1948 to 2006, displacing the Yellowknives Dene First Nation (YNDFN) from the western part of Yellowknife Bay, affecting their harvesting rights. The mine contaminated the water and led to long-term negative social impacts among the YKDFN. The YKDFN and the federal government agreed to set up a formal process to discuss an apology and compensation for the First Nation for a mine that operated on its land without its consent for several decades. The clean-up of the mine is expected to cost up to $1 billion, including initial care and maintenance and active remediation. Remediation work at the former gold mine is imminent and the YKDFN have demanded that it be the only eligible bidder on contracts that include water treatment, long-term environmental consulting and monitoring of the project.

Chiefs Edward Sangris, Dettah chief of the YNDFN and Ernest Betsina, Ndilo Chief of YNDFN met virtually with Crown-Indigenous Relations Minister Carolyn Bennett, Northern Affairs Minister Daniel Vandal, and Northwest Territories MP Michael McLeod on Jan. 29. “They must now put their good words into action,” said Sangris. Betsina said the chiefs want to ensure people who were impacted the most by the toxic legacy of Giant Mine are the ones who will benefit from the remediation project.

Antiquated royalty payments to First Nations in Mining Acts in the Yukon

Jan. 26, 2021: The Narwhal – Over the past 10 years, the Yukon government has collected a mere 0.3 per cent of the value of placer and quartz resources on behalf of all Yukoners, the rightful owners of those minerals. An independent panel appointed by the government to review the territory’s mining legislation found that, during this period, miners extracted minerals worth an average of $335 million per year yet only paid an average of $100,000 per year in royalties. 

The two laws predominantly responsible for mining in the territory, the Placer Mining Act and the Quartz Mining Act, were established in the late 1800s during the Klondike Gold Rush era and are in serious need of modernization, according to the panel’s recent strategy report, which is based on years of public engagement and is intended to inform the Yukon government’s efforts to bring Yukon’s mineral development legislation into the 21st century. Yukon’s antiquated royalty rates for gold — set into law in 1906 — are famously low at just 37.5 cents per ounce of gold, based on a per-ounce price of $15. In today’s market, one ounce of gold is worth more than $2,300.

Over the past decade, Yukon has seen a resurgence of mining interest, especially for gold extracted through placer mining operations. According to the Yukon Geological Survey’s latest comprehensive report on placer mining, published in 2018, there are 25,219 placer claims in the territory, the highest number dating back to 1973.

Through Yukon’s modern treaties, self-governing Yukon First Nations are able to receive royalties collected by the Yukon government. But because the territorial government receives such low royalties to begin with, only a “negligible amount” is actually making its way to First Nations, the panel found. The average royalty cheque received by First Nations during the past decade ranged between $6 and $24, Alatini added.

Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in First Nation, on whose territory the vast amount of Yukon’s placer mining takes place along the Indian River, reported receiving a royalties cheque from the government for $65 in 2017. That same year, placer mining along the Indian River accounted for 50 per cent of total placer gold mined in Yukon, according to the Yukon Geological Survey, amounting to more than 350,000 crude ounces of gold. 

The panel recommends that “Yukon First Nations receive a fair financial and social return from mining and exploration within traditional territories by strengthening the connection between revenue flows and Indigenous interests in the land itself.”

Recommendations from the panel also include allowing First Nations, under their final agreements, to charge companies directly for water use or land rental fees, instituting a statute-based template for benefit agreements with affected First Nations and requiring both impact and benefit agreements in advance of quartz mine development, construction, production and decommissioning.

Under the territorial formula financing arrangement, Yukon receives federal funding every year to pay for public services. But in order to maintain this funding arrangement, the Yukon government can only collect and keep $6 million worth in resource revenues each year.

“For every dollar above that $6 million amount, a dollar is deducted from Yukon’s [territorial formula financing] grant,” Eric Clement, director of communications with the Yukon government’s Department of Finance, told The Narwhal in an email. That $6 million ceiling may present challenges to Yukon moving forward with some of the most ambitious recommendations of the independent panel, including the creation of a heritage fund. The panel suggests Yukon look to the Northwest Territories’ arrangement with the federal government, which allows that territory to keep up to 50 per cent of its resource revenues without a specific cap. If implemented in Yukon, this arrangement would allow the territory to receive roughly $54 million in resource revenues without being forced to forego federal support, the panel found.

Sept. 15, 2021: Yukon Government – In collaboration with Yukon First Nations, the Government of Yukon is developing new mining legislation that will improve the management of the Yukon’s mineral resources in a way that respects First Nations’ relationships with the land and supports a modern and sustainable mining industry. The new legislation will work to improve the territory’s regulatory system, strengthen the Yukon’s economy, protect the environment and support the modern day needs of the Yukon. New mining legislation will replace the current Quartz Mining Act and Placer Mining Act. This steering committee will also ensure that industry, non-governmental organizations and the public have meaningful opportunities to participate and contribute to this important work. In April, 2021, the independent panel released the Yukon Mineral Development Strategy and Recommendations that “will be considered through the government-to-government process to develop new mining legislation”.

DeBeers Canada turning Attawapiskat into their garbage dump instead of building a winter road to haul away waste

Sept. 28, 2020 – DeBeers Canada (DBC) is seeking Ontario Government approval for a third landfill waste site to be built and filled up at the Victor Mine Site, located in a vulnerable James Bay wetlands area, and in a place of critical importance to Attawapiskat. The Victor Mine is now in the closure phase, where decommissioning and remediation are supposed to leave the landscape in a clean and safe state. Much of the diamond mine waste that DBC would deposit into such landfill, is reusable and salvageable.

“DeBeers could and should be transporting that waste through the winter road it has maintained for the last many years, to markets and facilities south of us, where it can be treated and reused,” says Attawapiskat Chief David Nakogee. “We’re talking about 100,000 cubic metres of material that could be reused or recycled. DeBeers unilaterally cancelled the contract for the winter road project because they said they don’t need it. Of course they don’t need it when they have the alternative of turning our lands into their garbage dump instead of building a winter road.”

DBC has applied for 97,000 cubic metres of landfill volume, which is just shy of the 100,000 cubic metres threshold which would trigger a Comprehensive Environmental Assessment. DBC very recently got approval for a demolition landfill of exactly the same size, and now they are asking Ontario to approve a second demolition landfill bringing the total diamond mine project demolition waste volume to almost 200,000 cubic metres.

A landfill that big requires a Comprehensive Environmental Assessment,” says environmental consultant to Attawapiskat, Don Richardson. “But if Ontario agrees that DeBeers can split the demolition landfilling into two pieces of about 100,000 cubic metres each, DeBeers can side-step the time and costs involved in planning a big landfill project through a Comprehensive Environmental Assessment. “DeBeers has profited a lot from the Victor Diamond Mine and will profit even more,” says Chief Nakogee. “These expensive diamonds come from my Nation’s homeland, in our backyard, and yet we continue to live in horrendous conditions where we can’t even drink the water here from the taps. We keep watching the wealth of our Traditional Territory, from the waters and lands to the wildlife, get industrialized. We keep watching others walk off with the profits of that industrialization, leaving us to bear the burden and the waste. When DeBeers has the money to transport, recycle and re-use materials, and to properly monitor the effects of the mine on the lakes and rivers, they must be required to do so.

Big-5 Canadian Banks continuing to finance oil and gas exploration in the Arctic including the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

April 30, 2020 – Despite movement by the majority of major U.S. banks – five of the top 6 – there has yet to be similar action from their Canadian peers to rule out financing new oil and gas exploration and development in the Arctic, including the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Arctic Refuge). In December, 2019, representatives of Vuntut Gwitchin Government (VGG) and Gwich’in Tribal Council (GTC) were joined by representatives of the Yukon Chapter of the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society on a trip to Toronto to meet with representatives of major Canadian banks to discuss the importance of the Coastal Plain of the Arctic Refuge and the role that banks can play in ensuring its protection.

VGG and GTC continue to regularly correspond with representatives from each of these banks and provide updates as it relates to the U.S. administration’s progression towards a lease sale, the continued unfavourable financial and social outlook of such a lease sale and the actions of their U.S. peers. Through these meetings and continued correspondence, Canadian banks have been provided a clear understanding of the immense human and environmental impacts and financial risks associated with oil and gas exploration or development in the Arctic Refuge.

VGG and GTC remain hopeful that Canadian banks will step up and acknowledge that the sacred land of the Gwich’in Nation is no place for drilling by updating their policies to refuse financing oil and gas exploration and development in the Arctic Refuge. Such an action would be greatly celebrated by the Gwich’in Nation and millions of supporters across Canada and the United States.

Oct. 22, 2020Vuntut Gwitchin Government and Gwich’in Tribal Council are celebrating news that the Bank of Montreal (BMO) has prohibited financing for oil and gas exploration and development activities in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. BMO has confirmed this new policy in an update to their Responsible Lending webpage. The move from BMO follows a similar action from the Royal Bank of Canada (RBC) earlier this month. BMO and RBC have joined more than two dozen global financial institutions that have rejected drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge including five of six major U.S. banks which include Citi, Goldman Sachs, JP Morgan Chase, Morgan Stanley and Wells Fargo.

Dec. 16, 2020: Yukon News – Scotiabank is the latest of five Canadian banks to reject drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. “Scotiabank will not provide direct financing or project-specific financial and advisory services for activities that are directly related to the exploration, development or production of oil and gas within the Arctic Circle, including the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.” A similar policy was issued by the Canadian Imperial Commerce Bank (CIBC) in October, joining the Bank of Montreal, Royal Bank of Canada and Toronto Dominion Bank (Nov. 10, 2020) in rejecting drilling in the area. “Dozens of banks from around the world have also refused to fund oil and gas development there, meaning that oil companies may be unable to finance drilling in the Arctic Refuge, even if they are successful in acquiring leases before the new administration takes over,” said the CPAWS statement (Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society).

Nov. 22, 2021 – US Congress passed “Build Back Better Act”, which restores protections to Iizhik Gwats’an Gwandaii Goodlit (The Sacred Place Where Life Begins), also known as the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. When more than 400,000 acres of the Coastal Plain were leased by the Trump Administration, not a single acre was leased by a major oil and gas company.

Negative impacts on Indigenous health through the suspension of environmental monitoring by the Alberta Energy Regulator

In March, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers requested that the federal government relax several regulatory and policy activities, including an indefinite suspension of all consultation with industry to develop new environmental policies. At the same time, industry has lobbied the provincial government to resume consultation with Indigenous communities to advance projects despite the closure of our communities due to COVID-19 pandemic responses.

June 5, 2020 – Three First Nations in northeast Alberta – Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation, Fort McKay First Nation and Mikisew Cree First Nation have jointly filed an appeal related to recent Alberta Energy Regulator (AER) decisions to suspend key aspects of environmental monitoring in the oil sands. The First Nations were not consulted on decisions that clearly impact Alberta Energy Regulator’s (AER) ability to identify and mitigate these impacts in traditional territories. The latest exemptions specifically relieve operators of the following:

  • Monitoring most ground and surface water, unless it enters the environment
  • almost all wildlife and bird monitoring is suspended
  • Air-quality programs, including one for the First Nations community of Fort McKay, have been reduced, along with many other conditions of the companies’ licences
  • Testing for leaks of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, has been suspended
  • Wetlands monitoring and research is gone until further notice
  • Water that escapes from storm ponds no longer must be tested

“A significant part of our concern is the lack of due process. Industry should not be able to petition its own regulator to relax approval conditions with virtually no oversight. This industry needs to maintain its pursuit of ethical oil. This is not how you do it,” stated Archie Waquan, Chief of the Mikisew Cree First Nation.

“The decisions to suspend environmental monitoring were made unilaterally. We were not notified—in fact, we would have had no idea this had occurred if it had not been revealed in the press,” stated Mel Grandjamb, Chief of Fort McKay First Nation. Consultation would have enabled us to inform the regulator how its monitoring decisions impact our Nations. Both we and the industry would have been better served by the clarity that consultation would have contributed to these decisions.”

In the days leading up to these decisions, our representatives sat AER, government and industry representatives to provide oversight to environmental monitoring programs under the Oil Sands Monitoring Program. The fact AER did not mention once it was considering suspending monitoring, some of which may overlap with program work, is very disappointing. This neglect does not encourage reconciliation.

June 23. 2020 – All temporarily suspended reporting and monitoring requirements will come back into effect on July 15, 2020. The Alberta Energy Regulator’s (AER) decision to end its temporary suspensions follows steps taken by the Government of Alberta, including the repeal of Ministerial Order 219/2020 and Ministerial Order 17/2020.

Legislative and Institutional Barriers Impacting Business Development
Bill 55 – An Act to Amend property Assessment and Taxation Act” makes Inuit accountable for property taxes on mining developments

Sept. 17, 2021 – With the passage of “Bill 55 – An Act to Amend the Property Assessment and Taxation Act” , the Government of Nunavut and the Members of the Legislative Assembly have transferred the burden of paying millions of dollars in property taxes each year from mining companies to Inuit, and make Inuit guarantors for mining companies’ tax arrears, stated the Presidents of:

  • Nunavut Tunngavik Inc. (NTI),
  • Qikiqtani Inuit Association (QIA),
  • Kivalliq Inuit Association (KivIA) and
  • Kitikmeot Inuit Association (KitIA)
  • collectively with NTI, QIA and KivIA, the “Inuit Organizations”).

Under Bill 55 Inuit are responsible for property taxes on mining developments on subsurface Inuit Owned Lands (IOLs). Article 22 of the Nunavut Agreement provides that Inuit may be responsible for property taxes for the value of IOLs in some limited situations. Inuit were never meant to shoulder the entire tax burden of mining companies. The Bill makes Inuit Organizations liable for unpaid property taxes if a mining company becomes insolvent or fails to pay. That will enable the GN to collect property taxes from Inuit Organizations including by seizing Inuit funds or selling off assets. Since 2018 the Inuit Organizations have advocated that Bill 55 be amended or withdrawn. The GN has refused to address Inuit concerns.

The Bill represents a “lose-lose” situation for Inuit and Nunavut – the mining industry did not ask for it, Inuit Organizations strongly opposed it and the GN will not receive additional revenue as a result. The transfer of tax liability from mining companies to Inuit Organizations is totally unnecessary. The Bill will harm the mining industry in Nunavut by increasing the legal and financial risks for Inuit Organizations.

In the rest of the country, mining companies and not landowners, are responsible for paying property taxes on mining infrastructure. This is so because mining companies own the infrastructure and benefit from the resulting development with the income from their mining projects. Landowners, on the other hand, especially during the early stages of mining projects, earn very little revenue. Bill 55 substantially increases the risk of mining development for landowners by obligating them to pay the outstanding property taxes of mining companies, if a mining company fails to pay or becomes insolvent. The GN is asking Inuit Organizations to collect property taxes from mining companies on the GN’s behalf, thereby forcing Inuit Organizations to be the guarantors for the debts of mining companies. Most mining development in Nunavut currently takes place on IOLs.

The GN failed to adequately consult with Inuit Organizations and ignored their concerns. While the GN consulted with Inuit Organizations on the initial legislative proposal in the fall of 2018, the government went on to make substantial changes and additions to the bill that ignored Inuit concerns.

Further, with Bill 55 the Government of Nunavut has unilaterally amended provisions of the Nunavut Agreement without Inuit consent. The GN has given Inuit Organizations no choice but to challenge the legislation in court.

Canadian Association of Aboriginal Business recommendations for improving business relationship with Indigenous business

Oct. 20, 2020: Canadian Association of Aboriginal Business (CCAB) – Released the findings of its latest report, “Promise and Prosperity: The 2020 Ontario Aboriginal Business Surveyprovide a longitudinal analysis of Indigenous business successes and challenges, while diving deeper into a crucial topic in today’s economy – improving access and participation for Indigenous businesses within government supply chains…only one in four Indigenous businesses have ever bid on a contract for either the Ontario (20%) or federal (21%) governments.

Indigenous businesses cite the following barriers to government contracts:

  • the size of government projects (12%);
  • the complexity of government procurement (9%); and
  • a lack of experience with the process (10%).

The following recommendations will assist in the collaboration of a shared path forward for governments, Indigenous businesses, and corporate Canada, and a prosperous Indigenous economy.”

Based on survey findings, CCAB recommends:

  • building awareness of Ontario procurement and funding opportunities
  • developing partnerships with Indigenous entrepreneurs,
  • simplifying access to financing and funding opportunities, and
  • building IT infrastructure and capacity for e-commerce.

Legislative and Regulatory barriers in the Indian Act restrict access to capital

Restricted access to capital impedes indigenous entrepreneurs from developing business opportunities. Some First Nations have unlocked greater economic development on reserve lands by opting out of the Indian Act system of lands management in favour of the First Nations Land Management Act. Those First Nations operating within the regime have witnessed a dramatic increase in new businesses, internal investment, and employment opportunities on reserve. These communities also use their revenues to invest back into the community, which in turn strengthens education and employment outcomes and reduces dependence on social programs.

Evening the Odds: Giving Indigenous ventures access to the full financial toolkit”. Dominique Collin and Michael L. Rice  McDonald-Laurier Institute. (The authors of this document have worked independently and are solely responsible for the views presented here. The opinions are not necessarily those of the Macdonald-Laurier Institute, its Directors or Supporters.) Continue to expand investments in and support for Aboriginal Financial Institutions (AFIs);Make a substantive effort to renew the fiscal relationship and to make fiscal fairness and affordable borrowing a reality for Indigenous peoples and communities.

This includes addressing current legal and regulatory barriers to accessing capital. Indian Act restrictions on land ownership and restrictions on accessing the funds in Indigenous trusts are areas for reform. New and alternative lending options are needed;Indian and Northern Affairs Canada should continue to work with Indigenous peoples, nations and governments to expand investments in communities and to enhance the investment climate. Future economic development programming should emulate the approach that led to the creation of the Native Economic Development Program (NEDP) in the mid-1980s.

An area of particular concern is a requirement for community guarantees for private home ownership, a liability no other local order of government in Canada could shoulder alone. These requirements result in individuals’ access to housing being contingent on the financial health and fortune of their community.Enhance the relevance, quality and availability of information to Indigenous households, businesses and communities through a commitment to transparency and openness, as well as supporting Indigenous-led research and data governance.

Department of Fisheries and Oceans supports fish farming industry at expense of commercial salmon fishery

Oct. 21, 2020 – The Union of BC Indian Chiefs (UBCIC) is demanding transparency and accountability from the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) regarding their continued jeopardization of wild salmon stocks. Following the DFO’s recent announcement that open-net pen farms in BC’s Discovery Islands pose a minimal risk to wild salmon, Dr. Kristi Miller-Saunders, head of the DFO’s molecular genetics laboratory, has stated that the DFO remains beholden to the open-net farm industry, underplaying the risks to wild salmon in order to hold aloft a controversial industry.

Chief Dalton Silver, UBCIC Fisheries Representative, stated: “Echoing the concerns of many of our Indigenous leaders, including myself, Dr. Miller-Saunders stated that the DFO appears to be minimizing the risks to wild salmon from sea lice and viruses, while leveraging its conflicting role as regulator and fish farm advocate to prioritize the fish farm industry and control the flow of research and data concerning it. It is highly unconscionable for the DFO to depend on funding from the fish farm industry to conduct research, and for them to regulate this research in order to gain few profits at the expense of the survival of wild salmon.”

UBCIC reaffirms our opposition to the DFO’s pro-industry bias and calls for scientific research to be conducted by Indigenous and independent bodies in order to accurately and transparently disclose the risks of open-net fish farms. The federal government can no longer handle the threats to wild salmon through inaction and misinformation; the very same blatant DFO conflict of interest that is fuelling the current violence in Miꞌkmaw territory is leading to the complete decimation of wild salmon stocks on BC’s west coast.

Dec. 3, 2020 – Nations involved in the Discovery Island consultation on fish farms are seeking to save wild salmon, and support a shift to land-based aquaculture, and an immediate stop to fish farms in the Discovery Islands. In light of the historic low returns of Pacific wild salmon this year, the First Nations Leadership Council (FNLC) is calling on the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) to fully implement the Precautionary Principle. The Precautionary Principle recognizes that in the absence of scientific certainty, conservation measures can and should be taken when there is knowledge of a risk of serious or irreversible harm to the environment and/or resources using best available information. In applying the Precautionary Principle, the FNLC is calling for the Government and Minister Jordan to take proactive conservation-based actions and commit to prioritizing the rebuilding of Pacific salmon stocks.

There is ample research and evidence that supports our understanding that the decline of Pacific wild salmon is the result of cumulative stressors along its migration routes. This understanding requires a fundamental change as to how we manage and protect wild Pacific salmon, to prioritize the rebuilding of wild salmon stocks and ensuring productive systems seven generations into the future. It is a matter of conservation. It is a matter of protecting the identities, culture and food security of B.C. First Nations across the Province.

Dec. 17, 2020: The Tyee – Acting on the wishes of seven First Nations in the Discovery Islands DFO Minister Bernadette Jordan has not renewed fish farm licenses in the Discovery Islands but ordered the phase out of all 19 Atlantic salmon feedlots owned by Norwegian-based companies. That means juvenile salmon will not have run through a gauntlet of fish farms and their parasites along one of the province’s largest wild salmon migration routes.

All the farms are to be emptied of Atlantic salmon by June 30, 2021.

Jan. 22, 2021 – The First Nations Leadership Council denounces the decision of Mowi Canada West Inc, Cermaq Canada Ltd and Grieg Seafood BC Ltd to apply to the federal court for an injunction to overturn the Discovery Islands Decision. Overturning the decision would be counter to the principles of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and would effectively create a situation where First Nations Inherent Title and Rights are contingent on the Crown. The FNLC refutes this, as Indigenous Peoples are the proper title holders and the original caretakers and stewards of our respective traditional territories. The FNLC urges Mowi Canada West Inc, Cermaq Canada Ltd and Grieg Seafood BC Ltd to exercise proactive conservation-based actions and work with First Nations in re-building Pacific salmon stocks.

April 9, 2021:Canada’s National Observer – On Monday, Federal Court Justice Peter George Pamel said Mowi Canada West and Saltstream would suffer substantial harm if they couldn’t transfer juvenile fish into three farm sites in the area. But Homalco Chief Darren Blaney said the companies’ win comes at the expense of wild salmon and all the First Nations dependent on the fish for food, and economic or cultural reasons. The Homalco and Tla’amin Nation were denied the right to intervene and speak on the issue that concerned their rights. 102 First Nations along the coast are opposed to the fish farms yet they were not allowed to intervene at the court to present their objections.

Less than 1% (0.32%) of annual federal procurement spending since 1996 is sourced from Indigenous business.

The Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Business (PSAB) has accounted for an average of less than 1% (0.32%) of total annual federal procurement spending since 1996.

Canadian Council of Aboriginal Business released “Industry and Inclusion: An Analysis of Indigenous Potential in Federal Supply Chains”calling on the federal government to increase the dollar value of its procurement spending with Aboriginal businesses to 5% of total procurement spending by 2024. The report found there is surplus Aboriginal business capacity to meet the needs of government and that a 5% target, which reflects the Indigenous population in Canada, is “realistic and achievable.”

As noted above, on Dec. 13, 2020, the Government of Canada committed to increasing their procurement spend with Indigenous business partners to 5%.

CCAB Industry and Inclusion Recommendations

  • Set a government-wide Indigenous procurement target of 5% within five years, through a 1 percentage point increase annually. Each federal department and agency should lay out a strategy to achieve this target and report annually on progress
  • Require that all departments incorporate considerations of Indigenous peoples (business and community) analogous to the requirements for gender-based analysis for submissions to Treasury Board
  • Develop additional programs to support existing Aboriginal suppliers in department purchase categories where there is currently insufficient Aboriginal business capacity to supply
  • Conduct additional research to identify key barriers to Indigenous business participation in federal supply chains, both from the perspective of Aboriginal business and government procurement officers

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